Author Contributions: Dr Volkow had full access to all of the data in the study and takes full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Volkow and Fowler contributed equally to this work.
Study concept and design: Volkow, Fowler, Wang.
Acquisition of data: Telang, Wang, Jayne, Hubbard, Carter, Warner, King, Shea, Xu, Muench, Apelskog-Torres.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Volkow, Fowler, Logan, Alexoff, Zhu, Hooker, Wong.
Drafting of the manuscript: Volkow, Fowler, Alexoff, Telang, Wang, Jayne, Hooker, Wong, Hubbard, Carter, Warner, King, Shea, Xu, Muench, Apelskog-Torres.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Volkow, Fowler, Logan, Zhu.
Statistical analysis: Zhu.
Obtained funding: Volkow, Fowler.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Telang, Wang, Jayne, Hubbard, Carter, Apelskog-Torres.
Study supervision: Volkow, Fowler, Wang.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the US Department of Energy with infrastructure support from its Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Support was also provided by grant K05DA020001 (J.S.F.) from the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Intramural research program, grant F32EB997320 (J.M.H.) from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and grant MO1RR10710 from the General Research Clinical Centers. A Goldhaber distinguished fellowship provided support for Dr Hooker.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Presented at the 55th Annual Society of Nuclear Medicine meeting; June 16, 2008; New Orleans, Louisiana.
Additional Contributions: David Schlyer, PhD, and Michael Schueller, PhD, Brookhaven National Laboratory, assisted with cyclotron operations. Joan Terry, and Hai-Dee Lee, MS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, assisted with clinical research center operations. Nikhil Pujari, BS, State University of New York at Stony Brook, helped with the image analysis, and Linda Thomas, BS, National Institutes of Health, provided editorial assistance. None received compensation outside of their salaries. We thank the individuals who volunteered for these studies, who each received a volunteer fee.