Author Contributions: Drs Kessler and Ludwig had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kessler, Duncan, Gennetian, Katz, Kling, Sanbonmatsu, Ludwig.
Acquisition of data: Gennetian, Sanbonmatsu, Ludwig.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kessler, Duncan, Gennetian, Katz, Kling, Sampson, Sanbonmatsu, Zaslavsky, Ludwig.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kessler.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Duncan, Gennetian, Katz, Kling, Sampson, Sanbonmatsu, Zaslavsky, Ludwig.
Statistical analysis: Kessler, Duncan, Katz, Kling, Zasavsky, Ludwig.
Obtaining funding: Katz, Kling, Ludwig.
Study supervision: Kessler, Gennetian, Sampson, Sanbonmatsu, Zaslavsky, Ludwig.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gennetian, Sanbonmatsu.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Kessler reported that he has been a consultant for AstraZeneca, Analysis Group, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cerner-Galt Associates, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline Inc, HealthCore Inc, Health Dialog, Hoffman-LaRoche Inc, Integrated Benefits Institute, J & J Wellness & Prevention Inc, John Snow Inc, Kaiser Permanente, Lake Nona Institute, Matria Inc, Mensante, Merck Inc, Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Primary Care Network, Research Triangle Institute, sanofi-aventis, Shire US Inc, SRA International, Takeda Global Research & Development, Transcept Pharmaceuticals Inc, and Wyeth-Ayerst; has served on advisory boards for Appliance Computing II, Eli Lilly, Mindsite, Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, Johnson & Johnson, Plus One Health Management, and Wyeth-Ayerst; has had research support for his epidemiological studies from Analysis Group Inc, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly & Company, EPI-Q, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceuticals, Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, Pfizer Inc, sanofi-aventis, Shire US Inc, and Walgreens; and owns 25% share in DataStat Inc. Dr Gennetian reported that he has served on advisory boards for Family Self Sufficiency TWG, Administration for Children and Families, and National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago. Dr Katz reported that he has served on advisory boards for Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation and the Russell Sage Foundation. Dr Ludwig reported that he serves on advisory boards (uncompensated) for Uhlich Children’s Advantage Network (Chicago), and the Board on Children, Youth and Families Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; and has served as a consultant for the MacArthur Foundation Network on Children and Housing and the MDRC Early Childhood Institute. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.
Funding/Support: Support for the current report was provided by a grant from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) (C-CHI-00808). Additional funders include: the National Science Foundation (SES-0527615), the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (R01-HD040404, R01-HD040444), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(R49-CE000906), the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH077026), the National Institute on Aging (P30 AG012810, R01-AG031259, P01-AG005842-22S1), the National Opinion Research Center’s Population Research Center (through R24-HD051152-04 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), the University of Chicago Center for Health Administration Studies, the US Department of Education/Institute of Education Sciences (R305U070006), the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Smith Richardson Foundation, the SpencerFoundation, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Russell Sage Foundation. The work of Dr Duncan was additionally supported in part by a Robert Wood JohnsonFoundation Investigator in Health Policy award, while the work of Dr Ludwig was additionally supported in part by a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator in Health Policy award, a Russell Sage Foundation visiting scholar award, and a visiting scholar award from LIEPP (Interdisciplinary Research Center for the Evaluation of Public Policies) at Sciences Po.
Role of the Sponsors: HUD assisted with the study design and reviewed the manuscript prior to submission, but had no other involvement with the study. The other funders of the project had no involvement in the study design or conduct; data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Congressional Budget Office, HUD, or the National Institute of Mental Health.
Additional Contributions: Outstanding assistance with the data preparation and analysis was provided by Joe Amick, MPA, Ryan Gillette, MPP, Ijun Lai, MPP, Jordan Marvakov, PhD, Nicholas Potter, MS, Matt Sciandra, MPP, Fanghua Yang, MPP Sabrina Yusuf, MPP, and Michael Zabek, BA, at the National Bureau of Economic Research and by Irving Hwang, MA, Maria Petukhova, PhD, Nancy A. Sampson, BA, and Benjamin Wu, MS, at Harvard Medical School, each of whom was an employee of our research team for this study. The survey data collection effort was led by Nancy Gebler, MA, PMP, at the University of Michigan’s Survey Research Center under subcontract to our research team. Helpful comments were provided (uncompensated) by Todd M. Richardson, MPP, and Mark D. Shroder, PhD, of HUD.