Published Online: March 2, 2009 (doi:10.1001/jama.2009.294).
Author Contributions: Dr Dharan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Dharan, Epperson, Klimov, Bresee, Fry.
Acquisition of data: Dharan, Gubareva, Meyer, Okomo-Adhiambo, McClinton, Marshall, St. George, Epperson, Fry.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Dharan, Gubareva, St. George, Epperson, Brammer, Klimov, Fry.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dharan, Epperson, Bresee, Fry.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dharan, Gubareva, Meyer, Okomo-Adhiambo, McClinton, Marshall, St. George, Epperson, Brammer, Klimov, Bresee, Fry.
Statistical analysis: Dharan, Epperson, Fry.
Obtained funding: Klimov, Bresee.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dharan, Gubareva, McClinton, St. George, Epperson, Bresee.
Study supervision: St. George, Klimov, Fry.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: No additional funds were required for enhanced surveillance.
Role of the Sponsor: Members of the Epidemiology and Prevention Branch of the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are responsible for the design and conduct of the study, for the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, and for the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Oseltamivir-Resistance Working Group Members: Farhad Ahmed, MBBS, MPH, Kumar Nalluswami, MD, MPH, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg; Susan D. Bascom, BSN, Communicable Disease Surveillance Section, New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Concord; Vjollca Berisha, MD, MPH, Office of Epidemiology, Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Phoenix, Arizona; Rachelle B. Boulton, MSPH, Utah Department of Health, Salt Lake City; Joyce Cohen, MPH, Edward Corkren, MPH, Molly Crockett, MPH, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston; Christine Dao, Varough M. Deyde, MSc, PhD, Henrietta Hall, Monica Patton, Tiffany G. Sheu, Teresa R. Wallis (Influenza Division), Craig Hales, MD, MPH (National Center for Public Health Informatics), Rebecca Sunenshine, MD (Coordinating Office for Terrorism and Emergency Response), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Laura M. Erhart, MPH, Ken Komatsu, MPH (state epidemiologist), Rebecca Sunenshine, MD, Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix; Kate Goodin, MPH, Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee; Matt Hanson, MD, DTM&H (Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer), Jenny Koepsell, MS, Krista Rietberg, MPH, Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Immunization Section, Public Health–Seattle & King County, Washington; Thomas Haupt, MS, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison; Jennifer M. Laplante, Lisa Mingle, PhD (Laboratory of Viral Diseases), Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany; Purisima Linchangco, MPH, Vaccine Preventable Disease Unit, Cook County Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois; Janice Louie, MD, MPH, Anthony Moore, California Department of Public Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond; Lisa McHugh, MPH, New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Trenton; Zach Moore, MD, MPH, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh; Rene Najera, MT, MPH, Division of Communicable Disease Surveillance, Office of Epidemiology and Disease Control Programs, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore; Sarah Park, MD, Ranjani Rajan, MPH, Hawaii State Department of Health, Honolulu; Cara J. Person, MPH, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, MPH, CDC/CSTE Applied Epidemiology Fellow, New York State Department of Health, Albany; Rene J. Powell, MPH (epidemiologist), Oklahoma State Department of Health, Acute Disease Service, Communicable Disease Division, Oklahoma City; Erik Reisdorf, BS, CLS M (NCA), Communicable Disease Division, Peter A. Shult, PhD, Tam T. Van, PhD (Emerging Infectious Disease Research Fellow), Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison; Shawn M. Richards, Indiana State Department of Health, Indianapolis; Alicia Siston, PhD, MPH, MS, Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois; Alaina Stoute, MPH, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York City, New York; Clayton Van Houten Jr, MS, Wyoming Department of Health, Cheyenne. The members of the Oseltamivir-Resistance Working Group helped with the acquisition of data but did not receive any extra compensation for their contribution.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 48th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ICAAC/IDSA) 46th Annual Meeting; October 24, 2008; Washington, DC.
Additional Information: Online eFigure is available here.