Author Contributions: Drs Kuiken and Li had full access to all the data in the study and take equal responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kuiken, Li, Lock, Lipschutz, Miller, Stubblefield, Englehart.
Acquisition of data: Li, Lock, Lipschutz, Miller, Stubblefield.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Li, Kuiken, Lock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kuiken, Li.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kuiken, Li, Lock, Lipschutz, Miller, Stubblefield, Englehart.
Statistic analysis: Li.
Obtained funding: Kuiken.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kuiken, Li, Lock.
Study supervision: Kuiken.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Army Research Office, DEKA Integrated Solution Corp Prime contract W911NF-06-C-001, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant R01 HD-043137, JHU-APL-DARPA contract 908090 under Prime Contract N66001-06-C-8006R01 HD0-044798, and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant R01 HD-043137.
Role of the Sponsors: The study sponsors had no role in the design or conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or the preparation of the manuscript. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency did require approval of all manuscripts associated with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics programs.
Additional Contributions: We thank the patients for their permission to include their information. We thank the engineering teams at Johns Hopkins University and DEKA Integrated Solutions Corp for the development of the advanced prostheses and the collaborative work to implement these systems with patients undergoing targeted muscle reinnervation. We also thank Aimee Schultz, MS (Neural Engineering Center for Artificial Limbs, Rehabilitation Institute), for assistance with the preparation of this manuscript. Ms Schultz received no extra compensation for her contributions.
This article was corrected online for typographical errors on 3/31/2009.