Study concept and design: Sherwood, Curtis, Rao.
Acquisition of data: Sherwood, Wang.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Sherwood, Wang, Peterson, Rao.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sherwood.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sherwood, Wang, Rao.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Sherwood.
Study supervision: Peterson, Rao.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Curtis reports research grants from the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop measures for public reporting, salary support from the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR), and ownership of stock in Medtronic. Dr Peterson reports research grants to the Duke Clinical Research Institute from the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Eli Lilly & Co, Janssen, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and consulting/honoraria from Boehringer Ingelheim, Genentech, Janssen, Merck & Co, and sanofi-aventis. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the American College of Cardiology Foundation’s NCDR. The analytic work for this investigator-initiated study was performed by the Yale Center for Outcomes Research, with financial support from the American College of Cardiology.
Role of the Sponsor: The manuscript was reviewed by the NCDR for compliance with registry description and representation but the sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study, analysis and interpretation of the data, preparation of the manuscript, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article represent those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NCDR or its associated professional societies, identified at http://www.ncdr.com. Dr Peterson, an associate editor for JAMA, was not involved in the editorial review of or the decision to publish this article.