Study concept and design: Friedberg, Schneider, Volpp, Werner.
Acquisition of data: Friedberg, Schneider, Werner.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Friedberg, Schneider, Rosenthal, Werner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Friedberg, Schneider.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Schneider, Rosenthal, Volpp, Werner.
Statistical analysis: Friedberg, Werner.
Obtained funding: Friedberg, Schneider, Volpp, Werner.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Werner.
Study supervision: Friedberg, Schneider, Volpp, Werner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Friedberg reported having received compensation from the US Department of Veterans Affairs for consultation related to the medical home model and research support from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute via subcontract to the National Committee for Quality Assurance. Dr Volpp reported having received compensation as a consultant from CVS Caremark and VALHealth and having grants pending with CVS Caremark, Humana, Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield, Weight Watchers, and Discovery (South Africa). Dr Werner reported having received grants or funding from the Veterans Health Administration, Horizon, and Healthcare Innovation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund and Aetna.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views presented here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Aetna, its directors, officers, or staff.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge Aaron Kofner, MA, MS (RAND), Scott Ashwood, PhD (RAND), Scot Hickey, MA (RAND), Katharine Lauderdale, BA (RAND), Wei Chen, MS (University of Pennsylvania), and Jingsan Zhu, MS, MBA (University of Pennsylvania), for assistance with programming and data management; Claude Setodji, PhD (RAND), for statistical consultation; and Marcela Myers, MD (Commonwealth of Pennsylvania), and Michael Bailit, MM (Bailit Health Purchasing), for providing data on pilot bonus payments and NCQA recognition levels and facilitating other data collection. Mr Kofner, Dr Ashwood, Mr Hickey, Ms Lauderdale, Mr Chen, Mr Zhu, and Dr Setodji received compensation for their roles in the study.
Correction: This article was corrected online February 25, 2014, for errors in Table 2.