Author Contributions: Dr Trivedi had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Trivedi, Mor.
Acquisition of data: Trivedi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Trivedi, Swaminathan, Mor.
Drafting of the manuscript: Trivedi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Swaminathan, Mor.
Statistical analysis: Trivedi, Swaminathan, Mor.
Obtained funding: Trivedi.
Study supervision: Trivedi, Mor.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a Health Policy Scholars Award to Dr Trivedi from the Pfizer Foundation. Dr Swaminathan was supported by a postdoctoral training grant (T32 HS000011) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, of which Dr Mor is principal investigator.
Role of the Sponsor: The funder played no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to John Ayanian, MD, MPP (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts), for thoughtful comments on a previous version of this article. We also thank Kim Elmo, BA, Judy Giles, and Michael McCann, BS, of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for assistance with data acquisition; and the Research Data Assistance Center of the University of Minnesota for advice in obtaining Medicare data. Those acknowledged did not receive compensation for their contributions.