Study concept and design: Owens, Barrett, Steiner.
Acquisition of data: Owens, Barrett, Steiner.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Owens, Barrett, Raetzman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Owens, Barrett, Raetzman, Steiner.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Owens, Steiner.
Study supervision: Steiner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under a contract to Truven Health Analytics to develop and support the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) (contract HHSA-290-2013-00002-C).
Role of the Sponsor: The AHRQ had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the AHRQ or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
Additional Contributions: We would like to thank 8 data organizations that contributed data to the HCUP that were used in this study: the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development; Florida Agency for Health Care Administration; Georgia Hospital Association; Hawaii Health Information Corporation; Missouri Hospital Industry Data Institute; Nebraska Hospital Association; New York State Department of Health; and Tennessee Hospital Association. In addition, we would like to thank the following individuals, who were compensated for their contributions: Minya Sheng, MS (Truven Health Analytics), and Tim Kenney, MA (Kenny IS Consulting), for the statistical programming; Lorena Lopez-Gonzalez, PhD (Truven Health Analytics), for the literature review; and Linda Lee, PhD (Truven Health Analytics), for editorial assistance.