Study concept and design: G. Wang, X. Wang.
Acquisition of data: Chen, Ji, Hong, Caruso, Pearson, Zuckerman, X. Wang.
Analysis and interpretation of data: G. Wang, Divall, Radovick, Paige, Ning, Chen, Hong, Walker, M-C. Wang, Cheng, X. Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: G. Wang, Divall, Ning, Ji, Walker, Caruso, Pearson, X. Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: G. Wang, Divall, Radovick, Paige, Ning, Chen, Hong, Pearson, M-C. Wang, Zuckerman, Cheng, X. Wang.
Statistical analysis: G. Wang, Ning, Chen, Hong, M-C. Wang, X. Wang.
Obtained funding: X. Wang.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Paige, Chen, Ji, Walker, Caruso, Pearson, Zuckerman, X. Wang.
Study supervision: Pearson, Zuckerman, X. Wang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Radovick reports consulting for Novo Nordisk. Dr Paige reports pending grant funding from the US Department of Agriculture for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) education. Dr Zuckerman reports receiving grant funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Massachussetts Center for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Boston Birth Cohort (the parent study) is supported in part by the March of Dimes PERI grants (20-FY02-56, #21-FY07-605), the Food Allergy Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health grants R21 ES011666, R01 HD041702, R21HD066471, R21AI088609, U01AI090727. We also acknowledge generous philanthropic support from the Ludwig Family Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank all of the study participants and the Boston Medical Center’s labor and delivery nursing staff for their support and help with the study. We thank H. J. Tsai, PhD (National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan), for critical review of the manuscript. We thank L. L. Fu, MS (Boston University School of Medicine), for data management; A. Ramsey, MD (Boston University School of Medicine), for administrative support; and T. R. Bartell, BA (Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center), for English editing. We are also grateful for the dedication and hard work of the field team at the Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine. No compensation was provided for contributions.