Author Contributions: Dr DeKosky had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: DeKosky, Williamson, Kronmal, Lopez, Burke, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Tracy, Dunn, Nahin, Furberg.
Acquisition of data: DeKosky, Williamson, Ives, Saxton, Lopez, Burke, Carlson, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Tracy, Woolard, Dunn.
Analysis and interpretation of data: DeKosky, Williamson, Fitzpatrick, Kronmal, Saxton, Lopez, Burke, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Tracy, Dunn, Snitz, Nahin, Furberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: DeKosky, Williamson, Fitzpatrick, Kronmal, Ives, Dunn, Furberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: DeKosky, Williamson, Fitzpatrick, Kronmal, Saxton, Lopez, Burke, Carlson, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Tracy, Woolard, Snitz, Nahin, Furberg.
Statistical analysis: Fitzpatrick, Kronmal.
Obtained funding: DeKosky, Kronmal, Burke, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Furberg.
Administrative, technical, or material support: DeKosky, Williamson, Fitzpatrick, Kronmal, Ives, Saxton, Lopez, Burke, Carlson, Fried, Kuller, Robbins, Tracy, Woolard, Dunn, Furberg.
Study supervision: DeKosky, Williamson, Kronmal, Ives, Saxton, Nahin, Furberg.
Financial Disclosures: Dr DeKosky reported receiving grants or research support from Elan, Myriad, Neurochem, and GlaxoSmithKline; and serving on the advisory boards of or consulting for AstraZeneca, Abbott, Baxter, Daichi, Eisai, Forest, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly, Medivation, Merck, NeuroPharma, Neuroptix, Pfizer, Myriad, and Servier. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant U01 AT000162 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements and National Institute on Aging; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (P50AG05133); Roena Kulynych Center for Memory and Cognition Research; Wake Forest University School of Medicine; and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany, donated the G biloba tablets and identical placebos in blister packs for the study.
Role of the Sponsor: The NCCAM of the National Institutes of Health contributed to the design and conduct of the study as well as analysis and interpretation of the data and preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals had no role in the design and conduct of the study; analysis and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NCCAM or the National Institutes of Health.
The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study Investigators: Project Office, NCCAM: Richard Nahin, PhD, MPH; Barbara Sorkin, PhD. Clinical Centers: Michelle C. Carlson, PhD; Linda P. Fried, MD, MPH; Pat Crowley, MS; Claudia Kawas, MD; Paulo Chaves, MD; Sevil Yasar, PhD; Patricia Smith; Joyce Chabot; Johns Hopkins University; John A. Robbins, MD, MHS; Katherine Gundling, MD, FACP; Sharene Theroux, CCRP; Linly Kwong, CCRP; Lisa Pastore, CCRP; University of California–Davis; Lewis Kuller, MD, DrPH; Roberta Moyer, CMA; Cheryl Albig, CMA; University of Pittsburgh; Gregory Burke, MD; Steve Rapp, PhD; Dee Posey; Margie Lamb, RN; Wake Forest University School of Medicine. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals: Robert Hörr, MD; Thorsten Schmeller, PhD; Joachim Herrmann, PhD. Data Coordinating Center: Richard A. Kronmal, PhD; Annette L. Fitzpatrick, PhD; Fumei Lin, PhD; Cam Solomon, PhD; Alice Arnold, PhD; University of Washington. Cognitive Diagnostic Center: Steven T. DeKosky, MD; Judith A. Saxton, MD; Oscar L. Lopez, MD; Diane G. Ives, MPH; Leslie Dunn, MPH; University of Pittsburgh. Clinical Coordinating Center: Jeff D. Williamson, MD, MHS; Curt D. Furberg, MD, PhD; Nancy Woolard; Kathryn Bender, PharmD; Susan Margitic, MS; Wake Forest University School of Medicine. Central Laboratory: Russell P. Tracy, PhD; Elaine Cornell, BA; University of Vermont. MRI Reading Center: Carolyn Meltzer, MD, University of Pittsburgh. Data Safety Monitoring Board: Richard Grimm, MD, PhD (chair), University of Minnesota; Jonathan Berman, MD, PhD (executive secretary), NCCAM; Hannah Bradford, MAc, LAc, MBA; Carlo Calabrese, ND, MPH; Bastyr University Research Institute; Rick Chappell, PhD, University of Wisconsin Medical School; Kathryn Connor, MD, Duke University Medical Center; Gail Geller, ScD, Johns Hopkins Medical Institute; Boris Iglewicz, PhD, Temple University; Richard S. Panush, MD, Saint Barnabas Medical Center; Richard Shader, PhD, Tufts University.
Additional Contributions: Stephen Straus, MD, the late former director of the NCCAM, championed efforts to evaluate complementary and alternative therapies in rigorous scientific fashion. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany, donated the G biloba tablets and identical placebos in blister packs for the study. We are grateful to our volunteers, whose faithful participation in this longitudinal study made it possible.