In the late 1980s, an ecological association between high rates of male circumcision and low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in Africa was noted from epidemiologic, geographic, and ethnographic data.1 A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published prior to 2000 suggested a statistically significant protective association between circumcision and HIV infection among African heterosexual men.2 A causal relationship between HIV risk reduction and male circumcision seemed likely; there was biological plausibility and consistency between studies. The studies, however, did not confirm that circumcision predated HIV risk reduction or that confounding factors might not explain the association.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 12
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
The Rational Clinical Examination EDUCATION GUIDESUrinary Tract Infection, Child
All results at
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.