Author Contributions: Dr Cook had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Cook, Levinson, Dupras, Garside, Erwin, Montori.
Acquisition of data: Cook, Levinson, Dupras, Garside, Erwin.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Cook, Montori.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cook.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cook, Levinson, Dupras, Garside, Erwin, Montori.
Statistical analysis: Cook, Montori.
Obtained funding: Cook.
Administrative, technical or material support: Cook, Montori.
Study supervision: Cook.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by intramural funds and a Mayo Foundation Education Innovation award.
Role of Sponsor: The funding source for this study played no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation of the manuscript. The funding source did not review the manuscript.
Additional Information: Details on included studies and their quality, and on the meta-analyses are available at http://www.jama.com.
Additional Contributions: We thank Melanie Lane, BA, Mohamed Elamin, MBBS, and M. Hassan Murad, MD, from the Knowledge and Encounter Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, for assistance with data extraction and meta-analysis planning and execution, and Kathryn Trana, from the Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, for assistance in article acquisition and processing. These individuals received compensation as part of their regular employment.