Author Contributions: Dr Arora had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Arora, Woodruff, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Acquisition of data: Arora, Georgitis, Vekhter, Meltzer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Arora, Georgitis, Siddique, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Arora, Georgitis, Siddique, Humphrey.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Arora, Georgitis, Siddique, Vekhter, Woodruff, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Statistical analysis: Arora, Georgitis, Siddique, Vekhter.
Obtained funding: Arora, Woodruff, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Arora, Georgitis, Vekhter, Woodruff, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Study supervision: Arora, Humphrey, Meltzer.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Arora reported receiving honoraria from the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine, the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American College of Physicians, the Society of Hospital Medicine, and the American Board of Internal Medicine; grant funding from the Hartford Geriatrics Health Outcomes Research Scholars Award and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant 1P20 HS017119); and having provided testimony to the Institute of Medicine Committee on Optimizing Graduate Medical Trainee Hours and Work Schedules to Improve Patient Safety. Dr Georgitis reported receiving funding from a Calvin Fentress Award from the Pritzker School of Medicine. Drs Arora, Woodruff, and Humphrey are members of the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine. Dr Humphrey reported receiving honoraria from the American Board of Internal Medicine and having been president of the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine. Dr Meltzer reported receiving honoraria from the Society of Hospital Medicine and the American College of Physicians. Drs Arora, Siddique, and Meltzer reported receiving grant support from the National Institute for General Medical Sciences (grant R01 GM075292-01; Effectiveness of TEACH Research). Drs Arora, Siddique, Vekhter, and Meltzer are currently supported by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality grant 1U18HS016967-01.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Department of Medicine, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Vivian Chang, MD (University of Chicago Pediatrics Residency), Carrie Dunphy, MD (Brigham and Women's Anesthesiology Residency), Fawaz Ahmad, MS (University of Arkansas School of Medicine), and Korry Schwanz, BA (University of Chicago Department of Medicine) for research assistance; Joyce Keldsen, Paging Services at University of Chicago Hospitals, for support and assistance in obtaining paging logs; Eve Van Cauter, PhD, Kristen Knutson, PhD, and Armand Ryden, MD, from the Sleep and Chronobiology Lab at the University of Chicago for technical support; and Kimberly Alvarez, BA, Meryl Prochaska, BA, and Michael D’Arcy, BA, of the University of Chicago for assistance in editing and manuscript preparation. All listed here were paid for their work through a combination of grants and money paid to them as employees of the university.