Author Contributions: Ms Jacobson had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jacobson, Ryan, Hooper, Smith, Amoroso, Boyko, Gackstetter, Wells, Bell.
Acquisition of data: Ryan, Smith, Amoroso.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jacobson, Ryan, Smith, Amoroso, Boyko, Bell.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jacobson, Hooper, Smith, Amoroso, Wells, Bell.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jacobson, Ryan, Hooper, Smith, Amoroso, Boyko, Gackstetter, Bell.
Statistical analysis: Jacobson, Boyko.
Obtained funding: Ryan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ryan, Smith, Gackstetter, Wells.
Study supervision: Ryan, Smith.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer:This work represents report 08-08, supported by the Department of Defense, under work unit No. 60002. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Department of Defense, or the US government. This research has been conducted in compliance with all applicable federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research (Protocol NHRC.2000.007).
Funding/Support: The Millennium Cohort Study is funded through the Military Operational Medicine Research Program of the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland. This work was partially supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIAAA grant R01-AA13324) and the Department of Defense US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (DAMD17-01-0676).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, analysis, or preparation of data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Millennium Cohort Study Team Members: In addition to the authors, the Millennium Cohort Study Team includes Gregory C. Gray, MD, MPH (College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City), and James R. Riddle, DVM, MPH (Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio).
Additional Contributions: We are indebted to the Millennium Cohort Study participants, without whom these analyses would not have been possible. We thank Scott L. Seggerman, BS, MS, and Greg D. Boyd, BA, from the Management Information Division, Defense Manpower Data Center, Seaside, California. Additionally, we thank Gina Creaven, MBA, James Davies, BS, Skye Endara, MPH, Lacy Farnell, BS, Gia Gumbs, MPH, Molly Kelton, MS, Cynthia LeardMann, MPH, Travis Leleu, BS, Jamie McGrew, Robert Reed, MS, Besa Smith, MPH, PhD, Katherine Snell, Steven Spiegel, Kari Welch, MA, Martin White, MPH, James Whitmer, Charlene Wong, MPH, and Lauren Zimmermann, MPH, from the Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California; and Michelle Stoia, BA, also from the Naval Health Research Center. We also thank the professionals from the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, especially those from the Military Operational Medicine Research Program, Fort Detrick, Maryland. We appreciate the support of the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland. These individuals provided assistance as part of their official duties as employees of the Department of Defense and none received additional financial compensation.