Author Contributions: Dr Mermin had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Mermin, Musinguzi, Opio, Kirungi, Kaharuza, Bunnell.
Acquisition of data: Mermin, Musinguzi, Opio, Kirungi, Downing, Bunnell.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kirungi, Ekwaru, Hladik, Kaharuza, Bunnell.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mermin, Opio, Ekwaru.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mermin, Musinguzi, Kirungi, Hladik, Kaharuza, Downing, Bunnell.
Statistical analysis: Mermin, Kirungi, Ekwaru, Hladik, Kaharuza.
Obtained funding: Mermin, Musinguzi, Bunnell.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mermin, Musinguzi, Opio, Downing, Bunnell.
Study supervision: Mermin, Musinguzi, Bunnell.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and by the Uganda Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency.
Role of the Sponsor: Staff of the CDC and Uganda MOH were involved in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, and in the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Health and Human Services, the CDC, or the Uganda MOH.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 6, 2008; Boston, Massachusetts.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful for the support and energetic efforts of the survey teams, laboratory staff, data managers, and analysts; the Uganda Bureau of Statistics; the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; ORC Macro; and the World Health Organization.