Author Contributions: Dr Lu-Yao had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lu-Yao, Albertson, Yao.
Acquisition of data: Lu-Yao.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lu-Yao, Albertson, Moore, Shih, Lin, DiPaola, Yao.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lu-Yao, Lin, Yao.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lu-Yao, Albertson, Moore, Shih, Lin, DiPaola, Yao.
Statistical analysis: Lu-Yao, Moore, Shih, Lin, Yao.
Obtained funding: Lu-Yao.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lu-Yao, Albertson.
Study supervision: Lu-Yao, Shih, DiPaola.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support:This study was supported in part by award DAMD17-01-1-0755 from the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, Fort Detrick, Maryland, and by the Cancer Institute of New Jersey; award W81XWG-05-1-0235 from the Department of Defense, Ohl Foundation; and by grants R01 CA116399 from the National Cancer Institute and NCI CA-72720-10 from the Cancer Institute of New Jersey.
Role of Sponsors: The Department of Defense did not play any role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the collection and management of the data, and reviewed and approved the study protocol and manuscript. However, NCI did not play any role in the analysis and interpretation of the data.
Disclaimers: This study used the Linked SEER-Medicare Database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the US Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We thank the Applied Research Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Science, National Cancer Institute; Office of Information Services and Office of Strategic Planning, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services Inc; and the SEER program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. Thanusha Puvananayagam, MPH (Cancer Institute of New Jersey assistant staff) provided outstanding administrative and technical assistance. Ms Puvananayagam did not receive any compensation.