Author Contributions: Mr Bhaskaran had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Bhaskaran, Johnson, Porter.
Acquisition of data: Bhaskaran, Hamouda, Sannes, Boufassa.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bhaskaran, Lambert, Porter.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bhaskaran, Sannes, Porter.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hamouda, Boufassa, Johnson, Lambert, Porter.
Statistical analysis: Bhaskaran, Lambert.
Obtained funding: Porter.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hamouda, Sannes, Boufassa, Porter.
Study supervision: Bhaskaran, Johnson, Porter.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The CASCADE collaboration has been funded through grants BMH4-CT97-2550, QLK2-2000-01431, QLRT-2001-01708, and LSHP-CT-2006-018949 from the European Union.
Role of the Sponsor: The European Union had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
CASCADE Collaboration Steering Committee: Julia Del Amo, MD, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (Chair); Laurence Meyer, MD, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Paris, France (Vice Chair); Heiner Bucher, MD, Hospices Cantonaux Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Basel, Switzerland; Geneviève Chêne, MD, Université Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France; Deenan Pillay, MD, University College London (UCL), London, United Kingdom; Maria Prins, PhD, Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Magda Rosinska, MD, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland; Caroline Sabin, PhD, UCL, London, United Kingdom; Giota Touloumi, PhD, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Coordinating Center: Kholoud Porter, PhD (Project Leader), Krishnan Bhaskaran, MSc (Scientific Coordinator), Sarah Walker, PhD, Abdel Babiker, PhD, Janet Darbyshire, MD, Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU), London, United Kingdom. Clinical Advisory Board: Heiner Bucher, MD, Hospices Cantonaux CHUV, Basel, Switzerland; Andrea de Luca, MD, Catholic University, Rome, Italy; Martin Fisher, Brighton Hospitals Healthcare Trust, Brighton, United Kingdom; Roberto Muga, MD, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain. Collaborators: Australia: Sydney AIDS Prospective Study and Sydney Primary HIV Infection cohort (John Kaldor, PhD, Tony Kelleher, PhD, Tim Ramacciotti, Linda Gelgor, David Cooper, MD, Don Smith, MD, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney). Canada: Southern Alberta Clinic (John Gill, MD, Calgary). Denmark: Copenhagen HIV Seroconverter Cohort (Louise Bruun Jørgensen, PhD, Claus Nielsen, MD, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen; Court Pedersen MD, Odense University Hospital, Odense). Estonia: Tartu Ülikool (Irja Lutsar, MD, Tartu). France: Aquitaine cohort (Geneviève Chêne, MD, Francois Dabis, MD, Rodolphe Thiebaut, MD, Bernard Masquelier, PhD, Université Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux), French Hospital Database (Dominique Costagliola, PhD, Marguerite Guiguet, PhD, INSERM, Paris), Lyon Primary Infection cohort (Philippe Vanhems, MD, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon), SEROCO cohort (Laurence Meyer, MD, Faroudy Boufassa, MD, INSERM, Paris). Germany: German cohort (Osamah Hamouda, MD, Claudia Kucherer, MD, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin). Greece: Greek Haemophilia cohort (Giota Touloumi, PhD, Nikos Pantazis, PhD, Angelos Hatzakis, MD, Dimitrios Paraskevis, PhD, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Anastasia Karafoulidou, MD, Laikon General Hospital, Athens). Italy: Italian Seroconversion Study (Giovanni Rezza, MD, Maria Dorrucci, PhD, Benedetta Longo, MD, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome; Claudia Balotta, PhD, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan). The Netherlands: Amsterdam Cohort Studies among homosexual men and drug users (Maria Prins, PhD, Liselotte van Asten, PhD, Akke van der Bij, PhD, Ronald Geskus, PhD, Roel Coutinho, MD, Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam). Norway: Oslo and Ulleval Hospital cohorts (Mette Sannes, Oddbjorn Brubakk, MD, Anne Eskild, MD, Johan N. Bruun, MD, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo). Poland: National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Magdalena Rosinska, MD). Portugal: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon (Ricardo Camacho, MD). Russia: Pasteur Institute, St Petersburg (Tatyana Smolskaya, MD). Spain: Badalona IDU hospital cohort (Roberto Muga, MD, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona), Barcelona IDU Cohort (Patricia Garcia de Olalla, MD, Agency of Public Health of Barcelona, Barcelona), Madrid cohort (Julia Del Amo, MD, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Jorge del Romero, MD, Sandoval clinic, Madrid), Valencia IDU cohort (Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, PhD, Ildefonso Hernandez Aguado, MD, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Alicante). Switzerland: Swiss HIV cohort (Heiner Bucher, MD, Martin Rickenbach, MD, Patrick Francioli, MD, Hospices Cantonaux CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland). Ukraine: Perinatal Prevention of AIDS Initiative, Odessa (Ruslan Malyuta, MD). United Kingdom: Edinburgh Hospital cohort (Ray Brettle, MD, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh), Health Protection Agency (HPA), London (Valerie Delpech, MD, Sam Lattimore, PhD, Gary Murphy, PhD, John Parry, PhD, Noel Gill, MD), Royal Free haemophilia cohort (Caroline Sabin, PhD, UCLMS, London; Christine Lee, MD, Royal Free Hospital Trust, London), UK Register of HIV Seroconverters (Kholoud Porter, PhD, MRC CTU, London; Anne Johnson, MD, UCLMS, London; Andrew Phillips, PhD, UCLMS, London; Abdel Babiker, PhD, MRC CTU, London; Janet Darbyshire, MD, MRC CTU, London; Valerie Delpech, MD, HPA, London), University College London, London (Deenan Pillay, MD), University of Oxford, Oxford (Harold Jaffe, MD).
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 3-6, 2008; Boston, Massachusetts.