Author Contributions: Dr Carbajal had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Carbajal, Anand.
Acquisition of data: Carbajal, Rousset, Danan, Coquery, Nolent, Ducrocq, Saizou, Lapillonne, Granier, Durand, Lenclen, Coursol, Hubert, de Saint Blanquat, Cimerman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Carbajal, Lapillonne, Hubert, Boëlle, Annequin, Anand, Breárt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Carbajal, Hubert, Annequin, Cimerman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Carbajal, Rousset, Danan, Coquery, Ducrocq, Saizou, Lapillonne, Granier, Durand, Lenclen, Coursol, Hubert, de Saint Blanquat, Boëlle, Annequin, Cimerman, Anand, Breárt.
Statistical analysis: Carbajal, Granier, Boëlle, Breárt.
Obtained funding: Carbajal, Annequin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Carbajal, Rousset, Danan, Coquery, Nolent, Ducrocq, Lapillonne, Granier, Durand, Coursol, Hubert, de Saint Blanquat, Annequin, Cimerman.
Study supervision: Carbajal, Cimerman.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant funds from the Fondation CNP, and the Fondation de France, France.
Role of the Sponsor: These funding agencies did not participate in any of the following: design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the physicians, nurses, and other health care providers at the participating institutions. We also thank Brigitte Fauroux, MD, PhD, Pediatric Pulmonary Department, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Research Unit INSERM S719, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, for her critical review of a preliminary version of the manuscript. She did not receive any compensation. We thank Pierre Metral, MD, from the Technical Hospitalization Information Agency for providing data from the PMSI French Database. He did not receive any compensation.