Author Contributions: Dr Allen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Allen, Yager, Tulsky, O’Connor, Felker.
Acquisition of data: Allen, Yager, Bowers, Dodson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Allen, Yager, Funk, Levy, Tulsky, Felker.
Drafting of the manuscript: Allen, Yager, Funk, Felker.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Allen, Yager, Funk, Levy, Tulsky, Bowers, Dodson, O’Connor, Felker.
Statistical analysis: Allen, Yager, Funk, Felker.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Yager, Dodson, O’Connor.
Study supervision: Tulsky, Felker.
Financial Disclosures: The University of Washington holds the copyright for the Seattle Heart Failure Model. Dr Levy reported receiving royalties from the Seattle Heart Failure Model. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: While this study was unfunded, Dr Allen's time was supported by National Institutes of Health grant NIH 2 T32HL069749-04, and Dr Felker's time was supported by National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant K23 HL72357-01A.