Author Contributions: Dr Maragakis had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Maragakis, Miller, Carroll, Perl.
Acquisition of data: Maragakis, Tucker.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Maragakis.
Drafting of the manuscript: Maragakis.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Maragakis, Tucker, Miller, Carroll, Perl.
Statistical analysis: Maragakis.
Obtained funding: Maragakis, Carroll, Perl.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Tucker, Miller, Perl.
Study supervision: Maragakis, Perl.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Perl reported having served on the advisory board for Pfizer, Replidyne, and 3M; having received recent research funding from 3M and Sage; and having received a speaker honorarium from Ortho McNeil. None of the other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: Dr Maragakis was supported by a Research Scientist Development Award (grant No. 5-K01-CI000300) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Role of the Sponsor: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Charles Reuland, ScD; Beryl Rosenstein, MD; Karen G. Davis, RN, MSN; and Karen Haller, RN, PhD, supported the hospital administration aspects of the study; the nurse managers and nurses of the study units obtained surveillance cultures; Tracy Ross, BS, and the microbiology laboratory processed the extra volume of cultures generated by the study; Kathleen Speck, MPH, coordinated the research and provided technical assistance; and Vidhya Gunaseelan, MS, assisted with database construction and data management. All individuals were affiliated with Johns Hopkins medical institutions. Mss Ross and Speck received compensation for their roles in the project. No other individuals received compensation for their assistance.