Author Contributions: Dr Parienti had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Parienti, Ramakers, du Cheyron, Daubin, Charbonneau.
Acquisition of data: Parienti, Thirion, Mégarbane, Souweine, Ouchikhe, Polito, Forel, Marqué, Misset, Airapetian, Daurel, Mira, Ramakers, du Cheyron, Daubin, Charbonneau.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Parienti, Thirion, Daurel, Ramakers, du Cheyron, Le Coutour, Daubin, Charbonneau.
Drafting of the manuscript: Parienti.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Parienti, Thirion, Mégarbane, Souweine, Ouchikhe, Polito, Forel, Marqué, Misset, Airapetian, Daurel, Mira, Ramakers, du Cheyron, Le Coutour, Daubin, Charbonneau.
Statistical analysis: Parienti, Le Coutour.
Obtained funding: Parienti.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Thirion, Souweine, Daurel, Mira.
Study supervision: Parienti.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Caen, France, and supported by an unrestricted academic grant from the French Health Ministry (Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National 2003). MEDA Pharma provided the antiseptics used in this study.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies were not involved in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Participating Centers in France and Cathedia Investigators: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Réanimations Médicale: J. J. Parienti (principal investigator), M. Ramakers, D. du Cheyron, C. Daubin, P. Charbonneau, N. Terzi, B. Bouchet, S. Chantepie, A. Seguin, S. Chevalier, D. Guillotin, X. Valette, T. Dessieux, W. Grandin, S. Lammens, C. Buleon, V. Pottier, C. Quentin, S. Thuaudet, C. Le Hello; Réanimations Chirurgicale: A. Ouchikhe (principal investigator), D. Samba, C. Jehan, G. Viquesnel, G. Leroy, E. Frostin, C. Eustratiades, M. O. Fischer, M. R. Clergeau, F. Michaux; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Cochin-Port-Royal, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Réanimation Médicale: J. P. Mira (principal investigator), S. Marqué, M. Thirion, S. Buyse, E. Clapson, J. D. Chiche, A. Soummer, B. Planquette, C. Baklini, D. Grimaldi, T. Braun, O. Huet, S. Perbet, J. Medrano, N. Verroust, A. Mathonnet, N. Joram, E. Lopez, D. Grimaldi, G. Colin; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lariboisière, Assistance Publique- Hôpitaux de Paris, Réanimation Médicale: B. Megarbane (principal investigator), F. J. Baud, N. Deye, D. Résière, G. Guerrier, J. Theodore, S. Rettab, P. Brun, S. Karyo, S. Delerme, A. Abdelwahab, J. M. Ekhérian, I. Malissin, A. Mohebbi-Amoli; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Réanimation Médicale et Néphrologie: N. Gazui (principal investigator), B. Souweine, F. Thiollière, A. Lautrette, J. Liotier; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Marguerite, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Réanimation Médicale: J. M. Forel (principal investigator), S. Gayet, N. Embriaco, D. Demory, J. Allardet-Servent, F. Michel; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Garches, Assistance Publique- Hôpitaux de Paris, Réanimation Médicale: A. Polito (principal investigator), D. Annane, V. Maxime; Centre Hospitalier General, Argentueil, Réanimation Médicale: M. Thirion (principal investigator), E. Bourgeois, I. Rennuit, R. Hellmann, J. Beranger; Fondation Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Paris, Réanimation Médicale: B. Misset (principal investigator), V. Willems, F. Philippart, A. Tabah; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Amiens, Service de Néphrologie Réanimation Médicale: B. de Cagny (principal investigator), M. Slama, N. Airapetian, J. Maizel, B. Gruson, A. Sarraj, F. Lengelle; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Croix Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon: C. Guérin (principal investigator); Centre Hospitalier Général, Pau: P. Badia (principal investigator); Centre Hospitalier Général, Saint-Malo: L. Auvray (principal investigator).
Data Monitoring Task Force: A. Gauneau (clinical research assistant, CHU de Caen); J. J. Dutheil (clinical research assistant, CHU de Caen); E. Vastel (clinical research assistant, CHU de Caen); F. Chaillot (administrator, CHU Caen); N. Marin (PharmD, CHU Cochin).
Previous Presentation: This work has been previously presented in part at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (abstract K-1751); September 17-20, 2007; Chicago, Illinois.
Additional Contributions: Leonard Mermel, DO, ScM, FIDSA, FSHEA (Rhode Island Hospital and The Warren Albert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island), reviewed the protocol and a previous version of the manuscript. Gérard Nitenberg, MD (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France), provided supporting comments during the early stage of this project. Gonzalo Bearman, MD, MPH (Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond), Roland Leclercq, MD, PhD (University Hospital, Caen, France), and Christian Brun-Buisson, MD, PhD (Hôpital Henri Mondor, France), reviewed an earlier version of the manuscript. None of the aforementioned persons received compensation for their contribution.
We gratefully acknowledge the dedication of the nursing and medical staff members of all the participating centers and the generosity of the study participants or family members, without whom this study could not have been completed.