The great reward for practicing interventional cardiologists is the ability to help patients live longer as well as to reduce their symptoms and improve their quality of life.1
These objectives have been central since Gruentzig performed the first percutaneous balloon angioplasty in 1977.2 In an effort to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of angioplasty, Gruentzig and other pioneers focused their initial studies on carefully selected patients with rigorous longitudinal follow-up.3,4 Gruentzig selected patients with less complex coronary stenosis, often single-vessel disease, to perform the “proof-of-concept” initial evaluation of angioplasty.5 These studies validated the concept that angioplasty relieved angina for patients with coronary stenosis.
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