Drug development is often a lengthy and expensive process. Extensive preclinical testing via in vitro and animal experimentation aims to select drugs most likely to work in humans. Under the current system, only about half of the drugs succeed in moving from phase 1 (dose-finding) to phase 2 (safety and efficacy).1 For drugs that enter phase 2, less than 1 in 3 succeed; for those entering phase 3 (pivotal efficacy), that number decreases to less than 1 in 2.1,2 Less than 20% of drugs entering phase 1 testing successfully reach the end of the 3-phase evaluation. The percentage can vary from one specialty area to another, and it can be less than 5% to 10% for oncologic and neurologic diseases.3
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