Study concept and design: Downing, Ross.
Acquisition of data: Downing, Aminawung, Ross.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Downing, Aminawung, Ross.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Downing, Aminawung, Ross.
Obtained funding: Downing, Ross.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Downing, Aminawung.
Study supervision: Ross.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Shah reported receiving travel expenses from IMS Health. Drs Krumholz and Ross reported receiving support from Medtronic Inc to develop methods of clinical trial data sharing, from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to develop and maintain performance measures used for public reporting, and from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop methods for postmarket surveillance of medical devices. Dr Krumholz reported that he chairs a scientific advisory board for UnitedHealthcare. Dr. Ross reported serving as a member of a scientific advisory board for FAIR Health Inc. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: Support for this study was provided in part by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr Krumholz is supported by a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Cardiovascular Outcomes Center Award (1U01HL105270-02). Dr Ross is supported by the National Institute on Aging (K08 AG032886) and by the American Federation for Aging Research through the Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award Program.
Role of the Sponsor: The Pew Charitable Trusts had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.