Author Contributions: Dr Hazen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lusis, Hazen.
Acquisition of data: Bhattacharyya, Topol, Zhang, Yang, Schmitt, Fu, M.-L. Brennan, Allayee, Lusis, Hazen.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bhattacharyya, Nicholls, Topol, Yang, Shao, D. M. Brennan, Ellis, Lusis, Hazen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bhattacharyya, Nicholls, Lusis, Hazen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bhattacharyya, Zhang, Schmitt, Fu, Shao, D. M. Brennan, M.-L. Brennan, Allayee, Lusis, Hazen.
Statistical analysis: Bhattacharyya, Nicholls, Yang, Shao, D. M. Brennan, Lusis, Hazen.
Obtained funding: Topol, Allayee, Lusis, Hazen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bhattacharyya, Topol, Zhang, M.-L. Brennan, Allayee, Lusis, Hazen.
Study supervision: Nicholls, Topol, Ellis, M.-L. Brennan, Hazen.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Nicholls reports that he has received speaking honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Merck, Schering-Plough, and Takeda and consulting fees from Roche, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Novo-Nordisk. Dr Ellis reports that he is named as coinventor on pending patents filed by the Cleveland Clinic referring to use of genetic markers in cardiovascular disease. Dr Ellis also reports that he has received research support from Lilly, Centocor, Boston Scientific, and Cardlodx and has received consulting fees from Celera, Cordis, Boston Scientific, and Abbott Vascular. Dr Allayee reports that he is named as coinventor on pending and approved patents filed by the University of California that are related to identification of 5-lipoxygenase as a gene involved in cardiovascular- and diabetes-related traits. Dr Allayee also reports that he has received honoraria/consulting fees from Reliant Pharmaceuticals and Corautus Genetics. Dr Lusis reports that he has received research grant support from Merck, Anthera, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Hazen reports that he is named as coinventor on pending and approved patents filed by the Cleveland Clinic that refer to the use of biomarkers to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Dr Hazen also reports that he is the scientific founder of PrognostiX Inc; has received research grant support from Abbott Diagnostics, Pfizer, Merck, PrognostiX Inc, Hawaii Biotech, ArgiNOx, Sanofi, and Takeda; and has received honoraria and consulting fees from Abbott Diagnostics, BioSite, Merck, Lilly, Pfizer, PrognostiX Inc, Wyeth, BioPhysical, and AstraZeneca. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grants P01 HL076491, P01 HL077107, P01 HL087018, P01 HL30568, and RO1 HL079353, the Case Western Reserve University/Cleveland Clinic Clinical and Translational Science Award (grant 1KL2RR024990), and AHA grant 0435223N. A portion of this work was conducted in a facility constructed with support from Research Facilities Improvement Program grant C06 (RR10600-01, CA62528-01, RR14514-01) from the National Center for Research Resources.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations played no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.