Author Contributions: Drs Ioannidis and Trikalinos had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Drs van Meurs and Trikalinos contributed equally to this article.
Study concept and design: van Meurs, Ralston, Balcells, Langdahl, Lorenc, Hofman, Kaptoge, Lorentzon, Mellström, Mosekilde, Nogues, Pols, Reeve, Weber, Ioannidis, Uitterlinden.
Acquisition of data: van Meurs, Ralston, Balcells, Brandi, Brixen, Kiel, Langdahl, Lips, Ljunggren, Obermayer-Pietsch, Ohlsson, Pettersson, Reid, Rousseau, Scollen, Van Hul, Agueda, Åkesson, Benevolenskaya, Ferrari, Hallmans, Husted, Kruk, Kaptoge, Karasik, Karlsson, Lorentzon, Masi, McGuigan, Mellström, Mosekilde, Nogues, Reeve, Renner, Rivadeneira, van Schoor, Weber, Ioannidis, Uitterlinden.
Analysis and interpretation of data: van Meurs, Trikalinos, Ralston, Brixen, Pettersson, Scollen, Agueda, Kruk, Kaptoge, Rivadeneira, Weber, Ioannidis, Uitterlinden.
Drafting of the manuscript: van Meurs, Ralston, Lorenc, Karlsson, Lorentzon, Nogues, Ioannidis, Uitterlinden.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Trikalinos, Ralston, Balcells, Brandi, Brixen, Kiel, Langdahl, Lips, Ljunggren, Obermayer-Pietsch, Ohlsson, Pettersson, Reid, Rousseau, Scollen, Van Hul, Agueda, Åkesson, Benevolenskaya, Ferrari, Hallmans, Hofman, Husted, Kruk, Kaptoge, Karasik, Lorentzon, Masi, McGuigan, Mellström, Mosekilde, Nogues, Pols, Reeve, Renner, Rivadeneira, van Schoor, Weber, Ioannidis, Uitterlinden.
Statistical analysis: van Meurs, Trikalinos, Rivadeneira, Ioannidis.
Obtained funding: Ralston, Brandi, Brixen, Kiel, Langdahl, Lips, Ohlsson, Pettersson, Rousseau, Van Hul, Åkesson, Hofman, Karlsson, Mellström, Mosekilde, Reeve, Weber, Uitterlinden.
Administrative, technical, or material support: van Meurs, Ralston, Kiel, Ljunggren, Obermayer-Pietsch, Pettersson, Reid, Scollen, Van Hul, Agueda, Åkesson, Benevolenskaya, Hallmans, Husted, Kruk, Kaptoge, Karasik, Karlsson, Lorentzon, Masi, McGuigan, Mellström, Mosekilde, Reeve, Renner, Rivadeneira, van Schoor, Weber, Uitterlinden.
Study supervision: Ralston, Balcells, Lips, Reid, Ferrari, Hofman, Mellström, Nogues, Pols, Reeve, Weber, Uitterlinden.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Ralston reported receiving consultancies from Novartis, Proctor & Gamble, and Sanofi-Aventis; serving as a lecturer at meetings sponsored by Merck, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Novartis, Proctor & Gamble, Sanofi-Aventis, and Servier; and receiving research grants from Novartis, Proctor & Gamble, and Wyeth. Dr Brixen reported serving on the advisory boards of Eli Lilly, Nycomed, Servier, Novartis, and Amgen and on the speakers bureau of Servier; and conducting clinical trials for Eli Lilly, Novartis, and Osteologix. Dr Langdahl reported serving on the advisory boards of Eli Lilly, Nycomed, Servier, Novartis, and Amgen and on the speakers bureau of Roche; and conducting clinical trials for Pfizer. No other disclosures were reported. GENOMOS is supported by the reported European Union grant and the specific teams that participated have additional grants as specified herein; these grants have been used for funding largely personnel salaries and laboratory expenses. None of the additional investigators or study group members listed below received compensation for services involving preparation or writing of the manuscript.
Funding/Support: The European Commission supported this study under grant QLK6-CT-2002-02629. The AOS study was supported by WADA (World Anti Doping Agency), Novo Nordisk A/S, Pfizer A/S, Danish Ministry of Culture, Overlægerådets Legatudvalg–Odense University Hospital, the Fonds voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek (FWO), and Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen). The EPOLOS study is supported by Ministry of Health and State Committee for Scientific Research grant no 2483/C. P05-4/99 and Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology grant no 2PO5A14228. The EPOS study was financially supported by a European Union Concerted Action Grant under Biomed-1 (BMH1CT920182) and also European Union grants C1PDCT925102, ERBC1PDCT 930105 & 940229. The ERGO study (Rotterdam Study) is supported by the Erasmus Medical Center and Erasmus University, Rotterdam; the Netherlands organization for scientific research (NWO); the Netherlands Organization for the Health Research and Development (ZonMw); the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE); the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports; the European Commision (DG XII); and the Municipality of Rotterdam. The Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS) is supported by the Framingham Heart Study, which is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (N01-HC-25195) as well as by grants from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Institute on Aging (AR/AG41398, and R01-AR050066). The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is funded by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports of the Netherlands and by ZonMW. The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis study (UFO) is supported by the Swedish Research Council (K2006-72X-20155013), the Swedish Sports Research Council (87/06), the Swedish Society of Medicine, and by grants from the Medical Faculty of Umeå University and from the County Council of Vasterbotten.
Role of the Sponsor: The European Commission had no role in design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Investigators and Study Group Members: GENOMOS: University of Ioannina School of Medicine: Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam: Pascal Arp, Mila Jhamai, Hans van Leeuwen; Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Aberdeen, UK: Omar M.E. Albagha, Helen Macdonald, Alison Stewart, Amelia Bassiti; Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK: Alison M. Dunning; Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark: Mette Carstens, Liselotte Stenkjaer, Nuria Gonzalez Bofill; University of Florence Medical School, Florence, Italy: Annalisa Tanini, Alberto Falchetti; University of Barcelona, CIBERER, IBUB, Barcelona, Spain: Daniel Grinberg and Mariona Bustamante; Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain: Adolfo Diez-Perez, Leonardo Mellibovsky, Susana Jurado; Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University, Graz, Austria: Daniela Walter, Ursula Hartl, Markus Gugatschka, Christine Bonelli, Harald Dobnig, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer; Department of Biochemistry and Experimental Medicine, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland: Elzbieta Karczmarewicz, Pawel Pludowski; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium: Sigri Beckers, Armand Peeters, Elke Piters, Wendy Balemans; Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden: Olle Svensson, Peter Nordström. AOS Study Group: Torben L. Nielsen, Kristian Wraae, Lise Bathum, Claire Brasen, Claus Hagen, Marianne Andersen, Bo Abrahamsen (Odense, Denmark). APOSS Study Group: Claire Parsons, Stuart Bear, Rosie Farmer (Aberdeen, UK). DOPS Study Group: Jens-Erik Beck Jensen (Hvidovre, Denmark), Pia Eiken (Hilleroed, Denmark). EPOLOS Study Group: Jacek Lukaszkiewicz, Piotr Bilinski, Edward Czerwinski, Andrzej Lewinski, Ewa Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Andrzej Milewicz, Marek Spaczynski, Maciej Jaworski (Poland). EPOS Study Group: Raniero Nuti (Siena, Italy), Simeon Grazio (Zagreb, Croatia), Thomas Miazgowski (Szczecin, Poland), Steven R. Boonen (Leuven, Belgium), Pavol Masaryk (Piestany, Slovakia), Jan J. Stepan (Prague, Czech Republic), Antonio Lopes Vaz (Porto, Portugal), Jacome Brughes Armas (Azores, Portugal), Jorge Cannata (Oviedo, Spain), Roman Perez Cano (Sevilla, Spain), Christopher Todd and Kay-Tee Khaw (Norfolk, Cambridge and Harrow, UK), Jose A. da Silva (Coimbra, Portugal), Ashok Bhalla (Bath, UK), Gyula Poor (Budapest, Hungary), George Lyritis (Athens, Greece), Terrence W. O’Neill, Mark Lunt (Cambridge and Manchester UK, Coordination). ERGO/Rotterdam Study Group: Cornelia M. van Duijn, Paulus J. de Jong, Monique M. Breteler, Bruno H. Stricker, Jacqueline C. Witteman (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). FAMOS Study Group: Juliet Compston (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK), Cyrus Cooper (University of Southampton, Southampton, UK), Emma Duncan (Nuffield Orthopaedic Center, Oxford, UK), Richard Keen, (University College, London, UK), Alastair McLellan (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK), John Wass (Nuffield Orthopaedic Center, Oxford, UK). Framingham Osteoporosis Study Group: L. Adrienne Cupples and Serkalem Demissie (Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts), Alma Imamovic (Department of Neurology and Framingham Heart Study Genetics Laboratory, Boston, Massachusetts). LASA Study Group: Ebbo Dekema, Huib van Essen, Saskia Pluijm, Dorly Deeg. MrOS-Sweden Study Group: Hans Mallmin, Elin Grundberg (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden), Anna Holmberg (Lund University, Malmö, Sweden), Eric Orwoll (Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon). UFO Study Group: Åsa Ågren, Hubert Sjödin, Kerstin Enquist, Ingvar Bergdahl, Ulrica Bergström (Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden).
Previous Presentations: The material presented in this article was presented as an abstract at The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 29th Annual Meeting; September 19, 2007; Honolulu, Hawaii.
Additional Contributions: We especially thank Professor Olof Johnell, who initiated the participation of Mr Os in GENOMOS but who unfortunately passed away during this study.