EIP is a network of state health departments, academic institutions,
and local collaborators funded by CDC to assess the effect of emerging infections and evaluate methods for their prevention and control.*
EIP personnel identified PCPs (defined as physicians in family practice,
internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, or pediatrics) via state licensure databases. Random sampling was used to select a representative sample for each PCP type† from the following EIP sites: Connecticut (New Haven County); Minnesota (seven counties in the Minneapolis/St.
Paul metropolitan area); New Mexico (four counties including the Albuquerque and Las Cruces metropolitan areas); and New York (15 counties in the Albany and Rochester metropolitan areas). A self-administered survey was mailed to PCPs in March-April 2007, with a second mailing to nonresponders in May-June, and a repeat mailing or fax in July-August. Participants were asked whether, since October 2006, they had evaluated patients with ILI (defined as a temperature of ≥100.0°F [≥37.8°C]
with a cough or sore throat) and whether they provided direct patient care ≥8 hours per week. Participants were asked to indicate whether they tested patients for influenza and, if so, which test types were used (i.e., viral culture, serology, or rapid antigen) and which types of rapid antigen tests were used (i.e., point-of-care testing or off-site testing‡). Participants also were asked whether they had prescribed antiviral agents since October 2006 and, if so, which types of antiviral agents they prescribed. In addition, PCPs were asked their reason for testing patients for influenza. Finally, physicians who were not involved in direct patient care ≥8 hours per week, had not evaluated patients with ILI, reported any subspecialty, or reported a specialty other than family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology,
or pediatrics were excluded from the analysis. Chi-square tests were used to compare percentages by PCP type, practice setting (i.e., outpatient versus hospital based), years in practice, and state.