Author Contributions: Dr Lietman had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Melese, Alemayehu,
Lakew, Yi, Chidambaram, Gaynor, Whitcher, Lietman.
Acquisition of data: Melese, Alemayehu,
Lakew, Yi, House, Chidambaram, Zhou, Cevallos, Ray, Hong, Phan, Zaidi,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ray, Porco, Lietman.
Drafting of the manuscript: House,
Zhou, Cevallos, Hong, Porco, Gaynor, Whitcher.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Melese, Alemayehu, Lakew, Yi, Chidambaram,
Ray, Phan, Zaidi, Lietman.
Statistical analysis: Ray, Porco, Lietman.
Obtained funding: Melese, Alemayehu,
Yi, Chidambaram, Lietman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Melese, Alemayehu, Yi, House, Chidambaram, Zhou, Cevallos, Ray,
Hong, Phan, Zaidi, Gaynor, Whitcher, Lietman.
Study supervision: Melese, Alemayehu,
Lakew, Yi, House, Chidambaram, Lietman.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the International Trachoma Initiative, the Bernard Osher Foundation,
That Man May See, the Peierls Foundation, the Bodri Foundation, the Harper Inglis Trust, the South Asia Research Fund, Research to Prevent Blindness, and grants U10 EY016214 and R21 AI 55752 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsor: None of the sponsors played a role in the design and conduct of the study, nor in the collection,
management, analysis, and interpretation of the data. None of the sponsors were involved in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Statistical Review: Travis Porco, PhD,
MD, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California,
San Francisco performed the statistical analysis for the study.