Author Contributions: Ms Ehringhaus and Ms Sears had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Ehringhaus,
Weissman, Feibelmann, Campbell.
Acquisition of data: Ehringhaus, Weissman,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Weissman, Sears, Goold, Feibelmann.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ehringhaus,
Weissman, Sears, Campbell.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ehringhaus, Weissman, Goold, Feibelmann,
Statistical analysis: Weissman, Sears,
Obtained funding: Ehringhaus, Weissman,
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ehringhaus, Sears, Feibelmann.
Study supervision: Ehringhaus.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Greenwall Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The Greenwall Foundation did not have any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: Ms Ehringhaus and Ms Sears are employed by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the organization whose recommendations on institutional conflicts of interest were used as measures by which to assess its constituent medical schools.
The authors have no other conflicts of interest relevant to this study.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge and express appreciation to David Korn, MD, Association of American Medical Colleges; and David Blumenthal, MD, MPP, Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital, for their guidance as this study was being developed and to Sowmya R. Rao, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital, for her assistance with the analyses of the survey data.
None of these individuals received compensation in association with their work on this article.