Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of inflammatory lung edema originating from a variety of insults.
Since its first description 40 years ago,1 the mainstays of management have been institution of mechanical ventilation to ventilate the incompliant lungs, inspired oxygen for hypoxemia, and when hypoxemia is severe, the addition of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to increase end-expiration lung volume,
which facilitates O2 gas exchange.2
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