Study concept and design: Steele, Hattersley.
Acquisition of data: Steele, Wensley, Colclough.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Steele, Shields, Ellard, Hattersley.
Drafting of the manuscript: Steele, Shields.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Steele, Shields.
Obtained funding: Steele, Hattersley.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Steele, Wensley, Colclough.
Study supervision: Shields, Ellard, Hattersley.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was funded by grant BDA:RD07/0003473 from Diabetes UK and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (Dr Steele). Drs Steele, Shields, Hattersly, and Ellard and Ms Wensley are employed as core members of staff within the NIHR-funded Exeter Clinical Research Facility, and Dr Hattersly is an NIHR Senior Investigator. Drs Hattersly and Ellard are Wellcome Trust Senior Investigators. The research leading to these results has also received funding under grant agreement CEED3 223211, from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, or the Department of Health.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary results pertaining to this article have been presented at the Diabetes UK Annual Professional Conferences in Liverpool in 2010, London in 2011, and Manchester in 2013.
Additional Contributions: We thank the Exeter Retinal Screening Team for their donation of equipment, training, and grading of images, A. H. Keen for the Minnesota Coding, and Steve Aldington, HND, for his advice with regard to retinal imaging techniques and grading.
Correction: This article was corrected on January 16, 2014, to correctly name the NIHR.