Study concept and design: Foa.
Acquisition of data: Capaldi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: McLean, Rosenfield.
Drafting of the manuscript: Foa, McLean, Capaldi, Rosenfield.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Foa, Capaldi, Rosenfield.
Statistical analysis: Rosenfield.
Obtained funding: Foa.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Foa, Capaldi.
Study supervision: Foa, Capaldi.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Foa reported having received research funding from the Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, and National Institutes of Health. In addition, Dr Foa reported having published books on PTSD treatment for which she receives income. Dr McLean reported having received research funding from the Department of Defense. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was conducted with support from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH074505) awarded to Dr Foa.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute of Mental Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, or any US government agency.
Additional Contributions: We thank the following people who provided evaluations and those who helped supervise the study therapists: Elizabeth Hembree, PhD; Tracey Lichner, PhD; Diana Antinoro Burke, PsyD (Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Elyssa Kushner, PhD (Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Pennsylvania). We also thank the counselors at WOAR, Philadelphia: Laura Benner Burritt, MA; Carrie Lee, LSW; Mirta Perez-Betancourt, LPC. We extend our particular appreciation to Carole Johnson, the executive director of WOAR, and Jill Maier, the counseling services director of WOAR, for their support of this study. We would like to thank Esther Deblinger, PhD (School of Osteopathic Medicine, Rowan University, Stratford), and Judith Cohen, MD (Department of Psychiatry, Drexel University College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), for training and consultation in client-centered therapy. Many thanks to the research assistants who helped with the day-to-day data collection, including Alissa Worly Jerud, BA (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle); Phoebe Conklin, BA (Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey); and Rebecca Yeh, BA (Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania ). Special thanks to Martin Franklin, PhD (Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania), and Kelly Chrestman, PhD (Center for Deployment Psychology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland), for their extremely helpful comments and suggestions during the preparation of the grant proposal. None of the above-listed contributors received compensation for their work.