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Research Letter |

Changes in Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Hepatitis C Virus in Opioid Treatment Programs

Marcus A. Bachhuber, MD1; Chinazo O. Cunningham, MD, MS1
[+] Author Affiliations
1Division of General Internal Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
JAMA. 2013;310(24):2671-2672. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278456.
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Opioid dependence is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.1 Opioid treatment programs, which provide treatment to more than 300 000 opioid-dependent individuals in the United States,2 are well-positioned to offer testing for these infectious diseases to a high-risk population. They were among the first venues to offer HIV testing and are more likely to offer HIV, STI, and HCV testing than other drug treatment programs.1 Private for-profit opioid treatment programs are increasingly widespread and such programs offer on-site HIV testing less often than nonprofit and public programs.3 However, with the 2006 national recommendations for routine opt-out HIV testing,4 we hypothesized that the percentage of programs offering on-site testing for HIV, STIs, and HCV would increase.

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Figure 1.
US Opioid Treatment Programs Offering Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) From 2000 to 2011

aRefers to revised recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006 to screen all adults, adolescents, and pregnant women for HIV infection in all health care settings, unless the patient declines.4bOn-site testing specifically for HCV was recorded starting in 2003.

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Figure 2.
For-Profit, Nonprofit, and Publicly Owned US Opioid Treatment Programs Offering On-Site Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing From 2000 to 2011

aRefers to revised recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006 to screen all adults, adolescents, and pregnant women for HIV infection in all health care settings, unless the patient declines.4

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