Study concept and design: Deb, Wiljesundera, Ko, Fremes.
Acquisition of data: Deb, Tsubota, Hill.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Deb, Wiljesundera, Ko, Fremes.
Drafting of the manuscript: Deb, Fremes.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Deb, Wiljesundera, Ko, Tsubota, Hill, Fremes.
Study supervision: Fremes.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (Dr Deb), the Distinguished Clinician Scientist Award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (Dr Wijeysundera), Clinician Scientist Award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation, Ontario Provincial Office (Dr Ko), and the Bernard S. Goldman Chair in Cardiovascular Surgery (Dr Fremes).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in design and conduct of the study; in the collection, anaylsis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Elizabeth Uleryk, BA, MLS (librarian at the Hospital Library and Archives, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada), provided guidance in the literature search. Ms Uleryk received no compensation for her contribution.