Study concept and design: Kaul, Tijssen, Kappetein.
Acquisition of data: Head.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Head, Kaul, Tijssen, Serruys, Kappetein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Head, Kaul, Kappetein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kaul, Tijssen, Serruys, Kappetein.
Statistical analysis: Head, Kaul, Tijssen, Kappetein.
Study supervision: Serruys, Kappetein.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Kaul reported serving as a consultant to Novo Nordisk, sanofi, and Boehringer Ingelheim; and owning stock in Johnson & Johnson. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Contributions: We thank the following colleagues for carefully reading the manuscript and providing valuable comments: David R. Holmes Jr, MD (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota); Michael J. Mack, MD, and David L. Brown, MD (Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, Texas); and Ad J. Bogers, MD, PhD (Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands). We further thank Esther M. Stoop, MD (Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands), for help with the literature searches and study identification. None of these persons received compensation for their work.