Published Online: November 17, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282173.
Study concept and design: Kim, Nichol, Hallstrom, Kudenchuk, Carlbom, Deem, Longstreth, Olsufka, Cobb.
Acquisition of data: Kim, Maynard, Hallstrom, Rea, Copass, Carlbom, Olsufka, Cobb.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kim, Nichol, Maynard, Hallstrom, Kudenchuk, Rea, Olsufka, Cobb.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kim, Nichol.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kim, Nichol, Maynard, Hallstrom, Kudenchuk, Rea, Copass, Carlbom, Deem, Longstreth, Cobb.
Statistical analysis: Maynard, Hallstrom.
Obtained funding: Kim, Cobb.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kim, Kudenchuk, Rea, Copass, Carlbom, Deem.
Study supervision: Kim, Copass, Cobb.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Nichol reported receiving institutional grant funding from the Asmund S. Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institutes of Health, Medtronic Foundation, Velomedix Inc, Philips Healthcare Inc, Physio-Control Inc, HealthSine Technologies Inc, and Zoll Inc; serving on the board of Medic One Foundation; being part of a patent assigned to the University of Washington; and receiving travel reimbursement from the American Heart Association. Dr Hallstrom reported receiving grants, support for travel to meetings, fees for participating in review activities, payment for writing or reviewing a manuscript, and provision for writing assistance, medicines, equipment, or administrative support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and serving as a consultant to Amarin and St Jude Medical for data and safety monitoring board activity on several trials. Dr Rea reported receiving grant support for community-based resuscitation from Medtronic Foundation. Dr Deem reported receiving institutional grant funding from the National Institutes of Health and Medic One Foundation. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by grants RO1 HL089554 and 5U01HL07786 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and with additional support from the Medic One Foundation (Seattle, Washington).
Role of Sponsor: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Medic One Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Data and Safety Monitoring Committee: Kyra Becker, MD (chair); Margaret Neff, MD; Tina Chang, MD; Karl B. Kern, MD; Nancy Temkin, PhD; Ralph D’Agostino, PhD; Chief Earl Sodeman, Seattle Fire Department; Thomas Hearne; and Michele Plorde, King County Public Health, Emergency Medical Services Division.
Medical Directors: Seattle Medic One: Michael Copass, MD, Jonathan Larsen (medical services captain). King County Medic One: Mickey Eisenberg, MD. Evergreen Medic One: Adrian Whorton, MD. Shoreline Medic One: Gary Sommers, MD. Bellevue Medic One: James Boehl, MD. Vashon Island Medic One: Sam Warren, MD.
Participant Applications: Tony J. Gerbino, MD (Virginia Mason Medical Center); Mark Reisman, MD (Swedish Medical Center); Steve Marshall, MD (Overlake Medical Center); and Daniel Markowitz, MD (Steven’s Hospital).
Study Nurses: Dianne K. Staloch, Karen Dong, Sue Scruggs, Alana C. Clark, Jane Edelson, Debi Solberg, Sally Ragsdale, Kathleen Fair, and Barbara Ricker.
Review of Prehospital Records: Roy Waugh, Dianne K. Staloch, and Karen Dong.
Database Entry and Management: Regina LaVassaur and Lihua Yin.
Additional Contributions: We thank the paramedics from Seattle Medic One, King County Medic One, Bellevue Medic One, Evergreen Medic One, Shoreline Medic One, and Vashon Island Medic One. We also thank the emergency department physicians and medical resident physicians rotating through the emergency department at Harborview Medical Center for providing randomization assignment to the paramedics.