Study concept and design: Nash, Shariff, Jain, Garg, Vinden.
Acquisition of data: Garg, Vinden.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nash, Rangrej, Shariff, Dixon, Garg, Vinden.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nash, Garg, Vinden.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nash, Rangrej, Shariff, Dixon, Jain, Garg, Vinden.
Statistical analysis: Rangrej, Shariff, Dixon.
Obtained funding: Vinden.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nash, Shariff, Vinden.
Study supervision: Shariff, Jain, Garg, Vinden.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Vinden reports receipt of a grant to his institution from the Division of General Surgery, University of Western Ontario; board membership and receipt of travel and accommodation expenses from the Ontario Association of General Surgeons; board membership and receipt of per diem honarium and travel expenses from the Ontario Medical Association, Section of General Surgery; provision of expert testimony for the Canadian Medical Protective Association; and receipt of travel accommodations and or meeting expenses from Cancer Care Ontario. Dr Jain reports receipt of a grant to his institution from Baxter Health Care. The other authors report no disclosures.
Funding/Support: The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) is a nonprofit research corporation funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. This work was supported by personnel at the ICES Western facility, which receives support from the Academic Medical Organization of Southwestern Ontario, the Lawson Health Research Institute, the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, and multiple departments at Western University. This project was funded by the Division of General Surgery at the London Health Sciences Centre.
Role of the Sponsor: The London Health Sciences Centre did not have any role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions, results, and conclusions are those of the authors and are independent from the funding sources. No endorsement by any of the funding sources is intended or should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We would like to thank Kathryn Barber, CHIM, Health Information Analystat London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, who provided input regarding hospital coding procedures. Ms Barber did not receive compensation for her role in this study. We also thank personnel from the ICES Western facility for their support in association with this article. They were not compensated beyond their regular salaries for their contributions.