Study concept and design: Kravitz, Franks, Feldman, Tancredi, Epstein, Duberstein, Bell, Paterniti, Kelly-Reif, Dvorak, Turner, Jerant.
Acquisition of data: Kravitz, Feldman, Slee, Jackson-Triche, Cipri, Olson, Kelly-Reif, Hudnut, Jerant.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kravitz, Franks, Tancredi, Slee, Epstein, Duberstein, Jackson-Triche, Iosif, Jerant.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kravitz, Franks, Slee, Jackson-Triche, Cipri, Iosif, Jerant.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Franks, Feldman, Tancredi, Epstein, Duberstein, Bell, Jackson-Triche, Paterniti, Iosif, Olson, Kelly-Reif, Hudnut, Dvorak, Turner, Jerant.
Statistical analysis: Franks, Tancredi, Iosif.
Obtained funding: Kravitz, Feldman, Epstein, Bell, Jerant.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kravitz, Jackson-Triche, Cipri, Olson, Kelly-Reif, Hudnut, Dvorak, Turner.
Study supervision: Slee, Jackson-Triche.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Franks reports receiving grant funding and the provision of writing assistance, medicines, equipment, or administrative support from the University of California, Davis (UCD). Dr Tancredi reports receiving grant funding from the National Institutes of Health and consulting for the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics. Dr Duberstein reports receiving travel accommodations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Dr Hudnut reports receiving grant funding from the University of California, Davis, subcontract to Sutter Institute for Medical Research. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants 1R01MH079387 (Kravitz), K24MH072756 (Kravitz), and K24 K24MH072712 (Duberstein) from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute of Mental Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Julia Huerta, MPH, and Dustin Gottfeld, BS (UCD), Ana Fernandez-Lamothe, Jeff Kohlwes, MD, and Seth Berkowitz, MD (University of California, San Francisco), for coordinating and facilitating recruitment and participation of patients in the study. All except Dr Kohlwes were compensated from grant funds for their time. We also thank Robert Burnett, MA (UCD Information and Educational Technologies), for developing and programming the animations used in the tailored interactive multimedia computer program. Mr Burnett was paid from grant funds for his time. Finally, we thank all of the clinicians, offices, and patients who participated.