To be clear and comprehensive, the declaration should state that populations who are vulnerable to exploitation should always receive a fair level of benefits. Providing fair benefits is the goal. The means to achieve it vary. In only a limited number of clinical trials, the requirement that vulnerable groups should benefit “from the knowledge, practice, or interventions that result from the research” (paragraph 20) along with the requirement that participants have posttrial access to interventions identified as beneficial (paragraph 34) can provide fair benefits, but only with respect to phase 3 trials in which an experimental intervention is found to be more effective. When research does not prove an intervention effective—phase 1 and 2, and negative phase 3 research trials—participants from poor countries with limited access to medical services are unlikely to benefit at all from these requirements. In these cases, a research project might supply clean water, new clinics, or build local medical and research capacity. If this level of benefits is fair, then the research will not be exploitative.