Published Online: October 4, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.277815.
Study concept and design: Harris, Pineles, Belton, Shardell, Dembry, Braun, Perencevich, Hall, Morgan, Zervos.
Acquisition of data: Harris, Pineles, Belton, Johnson, Braun, Morgan, Shahryar, Price, Gadbaw, Drees, Kett, Muñoz-Price, Jacob, Herwaldt, Sulis, Yokoe, Maragakis, Lissauer, Zervos, Warren, Carver, Anderson, Calfee, Bowling, Safdar.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Harris, Pineles, Belton, Johnson, Shardell, Loeb, Newhouse, Dembry, Perencevich, Morgan, Kett, Sulis, Zervos, Warren, Carver, Anderson, Calfee, Bowling.
Drafting of the manuscript: Harris, Pineles, Belton, Johnson, Shardell, Perencevich, Morgan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Harris, Pineles, Belton, Shardell, Loeb, Newhouse, Dembry, Braun, Perencevich, Hall, Morgan, Shahryar, Price, Gadbaw, Drees, Kett, Muñoz-Price, Jacob, Herwaldt, Sulis, Yokoe, Maragakis, Lissauer, Zervos, Warren, Carver, Anderson, Calfee, Bowling, Safdar.
Statistical analysis: Harris, Pineles, Shardell, Loeb, Morgan.
Obtained funding: Harris, Belton, Dembry, Perencevich, Morgan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Pineles, Belton, Johnson, Newhouse, Dembry, Braun, Hall, Morgan, Price, Maragakis.
Study supervision: Harris, Belton, Morgan, Shahryar, Price, Drees, Kett, Muñoz-Price, Jacob, Sulis, Yokoe, Maragakis, Lissauer, Zervos, Warren, Carver, Anderson, Calfee, Bowling, Safdar.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Harris reported that he serves as a consultant for Premier, Cubist, and Sanogiene and is an editor for UpToDate, Online. Dr Johnson reported that she has received research support from Nanosphere, Bio-Fire, and Bio-Med. Dr Morgan reported that he serves as a consultant for Welch Allyn and Sanogiene. Dr Kett reported that he serves as a consultant for Pfizer and Astellas; has received honoraria or speaking fees from Pfizer, Astellas, and GlaxoSmithKline; and research support from Pfizer and Akers Bioscience. Dr Muñoz-Price reported that she has received speaking fees from Sage and Steris. Dr Zervos reported that he has received grants from Cubist and Pfizer; received speaker honoraria from Sunovion and Cubist; and is a consultant for Optimer. Dr Warren reported that he has received research support from Cubist and Biomerieux; payment for a lecture from 3M Healthcare; and serves as a consultant for Centene Corp and Sagentia. Dr Anderson reported that he received research support from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Merck and royalties from UpToDate, Online. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants HHSA290200600015 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 5K25AG034216-03 (Dr Shardell) and 5K24AI079040-05 (Dr Harris) from the National Institutes of Health, and 1K08HS18111-01 (Dr Morgan) from the AHRQ.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of AHRQ.
Additional Contributions: We thank the following people for their outstanding contributions: Leslie Norris, University of Maryland School of Medicine, for invaluable administrative support; Gwen Robinson, MPH,* University of Maryland School of Medicine, for managing the thousands of specimens received in the clinical microbiology laboratory; Tamara Rasner, RN, BS, CIC, Scripps Health, San Diego; Marc-Oliver Wright, MT, MS, CIC, Northshore University Health System; W. Charlie Huskins, MD, Mayo Clinic; Michael L. Terrin, MD, CM, MP, and J. Kathleen Tracy, PhD, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Mary E. Johantgen, RN, PhD,* University of Maryland School of Nursing; and Valerie Burgest, MUPP, MA,* The Joint Commission, for technical and administrative support in study design and implementation. We thank the BUGG study coordinators for their outstanding efforts in data collection, compliance and site management: Kerry Bommarito, MPH,* Barnes Jewish Hospital; Lauren A. Howard, MPH, CCRC,* and Jennifer Coukos,* Boston Medical Center; Afrin Nuzhad,* and Nate Johnson,* Brigham & Women’s Hospital; Patty McGraw, RN, MS, CCRC,* Christiana Hospital; Amy Irwin, DNP, MS, RN,* Denver Health Medical Center; Lauren Knelson, MSPH,* Duke Infection Control Outreach Network; Anna LaFae, MPH,* Emory University Hospital Midtown; Daniela Moreno, MS,* and Rachel Giordano,* Henry Ford Hospital; G. Fernando Cubillos, MD,* and Paola Ballesteros, MPH,* Jackson Memorial Hospital & University of Miami Hospital; Elena Staicu,* Johns Hopkins Hospital; Barbara Gerrish, RN,* Lawrence & Memorial Hospital; Kirsis Ham, FNP,* Cornell Clinical Trials Unit; Renata Schwartz, MBA, RN, BSN,* St Luke’s Medical Center; Melissa A. Ward, MS,* University of Iowa Hospitals; Mindy Ralls, BS, ADN, RN,* Dawn Calderone, BSN, RN, CCRN, CNII,* Holly Howes, RNC, BSN,* and Jessica Warren, BSN, RN,* University of Maryland Medical Center; Timothy J. Houlihan, RN,* University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Susan Valentine, RN, MS,* University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics; and Nina Casserly,* WakeMed Hospital. We thank the ICU physician and nurse directors at the participating sites for their leadership and engagement: Warren Isakow, MD, and Michele Gatzert, RN, Barnes Jewish Hospital; Suresh Agarwal, MD, and Christina Denenberg, RN, Boston Medical Center; Anthony Massaro, MD, and Kathleen Leone, BSN, MBA, RN, Brigham & Women’s Hospital; Gerard Fulda, MD, Cindy Peters, RN, Christiana Hospital; Clay Cothren Burlew, MD, and Nicole Stafford, RN, Denver Health Medical Center; Lisa Pickett, MD, Louise Saladino, RN, BSN, MHA, and Sandy Hawk, RN, BSN, CRN, CNIV, Durham Regional Hospital; Michael Russell, MD, and Angela Bullock, RN, Duke Raleigh Hospital; Ken Leeper, MD, and Georgia Jackson, BSN, RN, MPH, Emory University Hospital Midtown; Michael Eichenhorn, MD, and Nancy Price, RN, BSN, Henry Ford Health System; Latoya Lewis-Pierre, RN, MSN, Jackson Memorial Hospital; Roy Brower, MD, and Pam Bollinger, MS, RN, Johns Hopkins Hospital; Robert J. Keltner, MD, Kelly Smith, Lawrence & Memorial Hospital; David Berlin, MD, and John “Chip” Holmes, RN, New York Presbyterian Hospital; Carol Loftin RN, CMCN, St Luke’s Medical Center; Kent Pearson, MD, Sara Caven, BSN, RN, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics; Cindy Dove, BSN, RN, University of Maryland Medical Center; Tanira Ferreira, MD, and Doreen Ashley, DrNP, University of Miami Hospital; Stephanie Levine, MD, amd Ronald Estrella, BSN, RN, CCRN, University Hospital, San Antonio; Jeffrey A. Wells, MD, and Ann Malec, MS, RN, ACNP, University of Wisconsin Hospital & Clinics; Ted S. Feinson, MD, Sabrina Tyndall, RN, MSN, NE-BC, and Chris Smith, RN, WakeMed Hospital. We would also like to thank the champions and infection prevention staff at each site. *Received compensation.