Study concept and design: Bekelman, Epstein, Emanuel.
Acquisition of data: Bekelman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bekelman, Epstein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bekelman, Emanuel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bekelman, Epstein, Emanuel.
Statistical analysis: Bekelman, Epstein.
Obtained funding: Bekelman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bekelman.
Study supervision: Bekelman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Bekelman reported receiving honoraria from the American Society for Clinical Oncology; and travel expenses from the Radiation Oncology Institute. Dr Epstein reported receiving institutional grant support from the Institute for Health Technology Studies. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by National Cancer Institute grant K07-CA163616, by American Cancer Society grant MRSG-121988, and with funding from the Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute, the Office of Research, Development, and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Information Management Services Inc, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. We thank Robert Sunderland, MS, of the University of Pennsylvania, for programming assistance and Adrienne Smallwood, BA, of Harvard University, for research assistance. Mr Sunderland and Ms Smallwood were compensated for their contributions.