Published Online: October 7, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278787.
Study concept and design: Hawn, Itani, Henderson, Maddox.
Acquisition of data: Hawn, Graham, Henderson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hawn, Graham, Richman, Henderson, Maddox.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hawn, Graham, Itani, Maddox.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hawn, Richman, Itani, Henderson, Maddox.
Statistical analysis: Graham, Richman, Henderson.
Obtained funding: Hawn, Graham, Henderson, Maddox.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Graham.
Study supervision: Hawn, Maddox.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Itani reported having received research support from Merck and Cubist. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study is supported by a VA Health Services Research & Development grant (No. IIR 09-347). In addition, Drs Maddox and Richman are supported by VA Career Development Awards.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The VA National Surgery Office and the CART Program approved the manuscript for adherence to the data use agreements.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group (SQDUG) for its role as scientific advisors and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in this article. The advisors did not receive compensation for their contribution besides their salaries.