Study concept and design: Raebel, Newcomer, Reifler, Boudreau, Elliott, DeBar, Ahmed, Bayliss.
Acquisition of data: Raebel, Newcomer, Boudreau, Elliott, DeBar.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Raebel, Newcomer, Reifler, Boudreau, Elliott, DeBar, Ahmed, Pawloski, Fisher, Donahoo, Bayliss.
Drafting of the manuscript: Raebel, Newcomer, Elliott, Ahmed, Donahoo, Bayliss.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Raebel, Newcomer, Reifler, Boudreau, Elliott, DeBar, Ahmed, Pawloski, Fisher, Donahoo, Bayliss.
Statistical analysis: Raebel, Newcomer, Reifler.
Obtained funding: Bayliss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Boudreau, Elliott, Donahoo.
Study supervision: Raebel, Boudreau, Bayliss.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. All authors report receipt of support from grant 1R01HS019912 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for this project. Dr Raebel reports grant and contract support from AHRQ and the US Food and Drug Administration. Ms Reifler reports being employed by the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) program until January 2011. Dr Elliott reports grant and travel for meetings support from AHRQ, and pending grants from HealthPartners Health Plan, Duluth Clinic Foundation, RealCME, and Pfizer, Inc. Dr DeBar reports grant support from Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, support for travel to meetings for study purposes from the Electronic Data Methods Forum, and pending grants from National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, and AHRQ. Dr Ahmed reports having a grant pending from the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr Pawloski reports receipt of payment for lectures from the New York Hospital Association. Dr Donahoo reports receipt of payment for developing educational presentations from The Obesity Society. Dr Bayliss reports having a pending grant and support for travel to attend scientific meetings from AHRQ.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant 1R01HS019912 from AHRQ.
Role of the Sponsor: The AHRQ had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the programmers from SPAN sites for providing data: Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Geisinger Health System, Group Health Research Institute, Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, and Kaiser Permanente regions in Hawaii, Northern California, Northwest, Colorado, and Georgia. We are indebted to the following investigators for their collaboration: Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Matthew Daley, MD (SPAN principal investigator), and Ella Lyons, MS; Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Lisa Herrinton, PhD; Geisinger Health System, Christopher Still, DO, and Craig Wood, MS; Anschutz Health and Wellness Center, Sarit Polsky, MD, MPH; Group Health Research Institute, David Arterburn, MD; Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare, Sengwee Toh, ScD; Kaiser Permanente Hawaii, Cynthia Nakasato, MD, Rebecca Williams, DrPH, MPH, and Vinutha Vijayadeva, PhD, MPH; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Kristine Funk, MS, RD; Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Arthur Davidson, MD, MSPH; and Kaiser Permanente Georgia, Melissa Butler, PharmD, MPH, PhD.
We thank Kaiser Permanente Colorado team members including David Powers, MS, for analytic contributions; David Tabano, MA, and Andrew Sterrett, PhD, for programming code to develop the obesity data marts; and Jennifer Portz, MSW, Michael Shainline, MS, MBA, Carmen Faust, MPH, and Barbara McCray for technical and administrative assistance. All individuals listed received support from grant 1R01HS019912 from the AHRQ for this project. Finally, we thank Katie Saunders, JD, from the Group Health Research Institute who provided morphine equivalent mappings and opioid lookup tables. Ms Saunders was not compensated in association with her contributions to this article.