Study concept and design: Perry, Sivilotti, Hohl, Émond, Lee, Lesiuk.
Acquisition of data: Perry, Sivilotti, Bullard, Hohl, Sutherland, Émond, Worster, Lee, Mackey, Pauls, Lesiuk, Symington.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Perry, Stiell, Sivilotti, Worster, Lee, Wells.
Drafting of the manuscript: Perry, Sutherland, Lee.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Stiell, Sivilotti, Bullard, Hohl, Émond, Worster, Lee, Mackey, Pauls, Lesiuk, Symington, Wells.
Statistical analysis: Wells.
Obtained funding: Perry, Sivilotti, Émond, Lee.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stiell, Sivilotti, Hohl, Sutherland, Lee, Pauls, Lesiuk, Symington.
Study supervision: Perry, Sivilotti, Bullard, Hohl, Sutherland, Worster, Mackey, Pauls.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by peer-reviewed funding from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (grant 153742). Dr Perry is supported by a Canadian Institutes for Health Research New Investigator Award and was previously supported as a Career Scientist by the Ontario Ministry of Health. Dr Stiell is a Distinguished Professor and University Health Research Chair, University of Ottawa. Dr Hohl was supported by a Mentored Clinician Scientist Award from the Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute during the study period.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the hundreds of physicians who completed our data collection forms and the emergency department nurses and clerks at all of the study sites for their cooperation. We thank Albert E. Lauwers, MD, FRCP (Office of the Coroner of Ontario), for assistance in verifying outcomes; Dr Lauwers received no compensation for his contributions. We also thank the following research personnel at the study hospitals: Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia: Jan Buchanan; Ottawa Hospital—Civic Campus and General Campuses, Ottawa, Ontario: Juanita Wilzer, Renée Labreche; University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta: Harris Lari, Leslie Saunders, Ginny Willis, Sandy Sandilands; Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario: Deborah Wright, Johanna Pak; Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario: Kathy Bowes, Jane Reid, Deborah Emerton; Hôpital de L’Enfant-Jésus, Quebec City, Quebec: Patricia Chabot; Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario: Christina Brean; Lethbridge Regional Hospital, Lethbridge, Alberta: Marlene Myles; Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba: Irene Osinchuk. We thank our Ottawa Hospital Research Institute colleagues Sarai Cohn-Kalter, Malaika Mvungi, Sheryl Domingo, My-Linh Tran, Catherine Clement, and Angela Marcantonio for their assistance with this project.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the CAEP 2012 conference of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 2-6, 2012.