Graeme M. Clark and colleagues describe the evolving science of cochlear implants and the histopathology associated with a patient who had his implant removed when it failed in 1983 and again in 1998. Dr Clark has been awarded the 2013 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for his pioneering work in cochlear implant development.
In 1978, the first multichannel cochlear implant was developed in Australia and a prototype was surgically implanted in a 48-year-old patient (MC-1). After a series of clinical trials, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the Australian cochlear implant in adults in 1985, and subsequently, the agency has approved the device for use in infants as young as 6 months of age. During the past 3 decades, more than 300 000 patients have had their hearing restored with cochlear implants. In this Viewpoint, we describe how the assessment of the temporal bone of MC-1, the first patient to receive a cochlear implant, is aiding the further development of the device.
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A, Heterotopic bone formation (asterisk) and black particulate matter (black arrowhead) engulfed by macrophages in tissue surrounding the CI-24 electrode (Masson trichrome, original magnification x 40). B, Multinucleate giant cell (blue arrowhead) and macrophages containing foreign black particles (black arrowhead) in tissue surrounding the CI-22 electrode (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification x 40).
Three-dimensional reconstruction (right) of the patient's cochlea from histologic sections shows the lateral position of the CI-24 electrode tract (orange). In future patients, a thin-film, high-density electrode microarray (green) could be placed in a perimodiolar position, closer to the spiral ganglion, for fine temporo-spatial patterns of nerve stimulation.7
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
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JAMA 2013-09-09, Vol. 310, No. 12, Author Audio Interview (Published online September 09, 2013)
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