Study concept and design: Zlotkin, Newton, Aimone, Owusu-Agyei.
Acquisition of data: Newton, Aimone, Azindow, Amenga-Etego, Tchum, Owusu-Agyei.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Newton, Aimone, Tchum, Mahama, Thorpe, Owusu-Agyei.
Drafting of the manuscript: Newton, Aimone, Owusu-Agyei.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Zlotkin, Newton, Aimone, Azindow, Amenga-Etego, Tchum, Mahama, Thorpe, Owusu-Agyei.
Statistical analysis: Aimone, Tchum, Mahama, Thorpe, Owusu-Agyei.
Obtained funding: Zlotkin, Aimone.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Zlotkin, Newton, Tchum, Owusu-Agyei.
Study supervision: Zlotkin, Newton, Aimone, Azindow, Tchum, Owusu-Agyei.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Zlotkin reported having intellectual property rights to his invention known as Sprinkles, which includes (1) patent rights for the United States and Canada, which are held by Ped-Med Limited (a Canadian corporation of which Dr Zlotkin is the sole shareholder) and (2) trademark rights in various jurisdictions to the name Sprinkles, which are held by either Ped-Med Limited or the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative Inc (a Canadian not-for-profit corporation of which Dr Zlotkin is a member); receiving grant funding and support for travel expenses from the National Institutes of Health; serving on a scientific advisory committee for Danone; providing expert testimony for the Ministry of the Attorney General of Ontario; receiving institutional grants from the Saving Lives at Birth Foundation and the Muskoka Initiative Consortium; receiving payment for lectures from Nutreo and the government of Colombia; holding a North American patent on micronutrient powders; having a nonexclusive agreement on micronutrient powders with New GPC Ltd in Guyana; and receiving institutional funding from the United Nations Children’s Fund for consultation meetings related to micronutrient powders. Mss Aimone and Azindow and Messrs Tchum and Owusu-Agyei reported receiving institutional grant funding from the National Institutes of Health. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health (grant 5U01HD061270-02), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Office of Dietary Supplements provided funding for this study.
Role of the Sponsors: The National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Office of Dietary Supplements had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the study participants and their caregivers; the Kintampo Health Research Centre field team and staff; the chiefs, opinion leaders, and elders of the participating communities; the participating health facilities; and the Ghana Health Service staff in Wenchi and Tain.