Study concept and design: Teo, Yusuf, Chow.
Acquisition of data: Teo, Rangarajan, Gupta, Avezum, Bahonar, Chifamba, Dagenais, Diaz, Kazmi, Lanas, Li, Lopez-Jaramillo, Lu, Noorhassim, Puoane, Rosengren, Szuba, Temizhan, Wielgosz, Yusuf, Yusufali, Liu, Mony, Yusuf, Chow.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Teo, Islam, Gupta, Diaz, Li, Puoane, Rosengren, Temizhan, McKee, Mony, Yusuf, Chow.
Drafting of the manuscript: Teo, Rangarajan, Islam, Yusuf, Chow.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Teo, Islam, Rangarajan, Gupta, Avezum, Bahonar, Chifamba, Dagenais, Diaz, Kazmi, Lanas, Li, Lopez-Jaramillo, Lu, Noorhassim, Puoane, Rosengren, Szuba, Temizhan, Wielgosz, Yusuf, Yusufali, McKee, Liu, Mony, Chow.
Statistical analysis: Islam, Yusuf, Chow.
Obtained funding: Avezum, Lanas, Puoane, Rosengren, Yusufali, Mony, Yusuf, Chow.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Teo, Rangarajan, Gupta, Chifamba, Dagenais, Diaz, Kazmi, Li, Lu, Puoane, Rosengren, Szuba, Temizhan, Wielgosz, Yusuf, Mony, Yusuf.
Study supervision: Teo, Rangarajan, Gupta, Avezum, Bahonar, Li, Noorhassim, Puoane, Szuba, Temizhan, Wielgosz, McKee, Liu, Mony, Yusuf.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Chow reports support from a fellowship cofunded by the National Health and Medical Research Council/National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Sydney Medical Foundation; grants or pending grants to her institution from AstraZeneca, Roche, and Abbot; and payment for lectures including service on speakers bureaus from AstraZeneca. Dr Gupta reports receipt of support for travel to meetings for the study or other purposes from the Population Health Research Institute (PHRI), McMaster University. Mr Bahonar reports receipt of funds to his institution from PHRI, McMaster University for study costs. Dr Dagenais reports receipt of consultancy fees and travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from Sanofi. Dr Lanas reports receipt of a grant to his institution from the Universidad de la Frontera and support for travel to meetings for the study or other purposes from PHRI, McMaster University. Dr Lopez-Jaramillo reports support for travel to meetings for the study or other purposes from PHRI, McMaster University and payment for lectures including service on speakers bureaus from Merck, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and AstraZeneca. Mr Ismail reports support for travel to meetings for the study or other purposes from PHRI, McMaster University. Dr Yusuf reports receiving grants for research from several companies who manufacture antihypertensive drugs including all the multinational pharmaceutical sponsors of PURE and payment for lectures, consulting, and related travel expenses from these companies. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The PURE study is an investigator-initiated study that is funded through a variety of sources including the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, grants from several pharmaceutical companies, and grants from various governmental bodies in different countries. Dr S Yusuf is supported by the Mary W Burke endowed chair of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario. The PURE study is an investigator-initiated study that is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and through unrestricted grants from several pharmaceutical companies (with major contributions from AstraZeneca [Sweden and Canada], Novartis, Sanofi [France and Canada], Boehringer Ingelheim [Germany and Canada], Servier, King Pharma, GlaxoSmithKline), and additionally by various national bodies in different countries: Bangladesh: Independent University, Bangladesh, Mitra and Associates; Brazil: Unilever Health Institute, Brazil Canada: Public Health Agency of Canada and Champlain Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Network; Chile: Universidad de la Frontera; China: National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases; Colombia: Colciencias, Grant number:6566-04-18062; India: Indian Council of Medical Research; Malaysia: Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia:Grant Number 07-05-IFN-MEB010, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM-Hejim-Komuniti-15-2010); Poland: Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grant Nr 290/W-PURE/2008/0, Wroclaw Medical University; South Africa: The North-West University, SANPAD (SA and Netherlands Programme for Alternative Development), National Research Foundation, Medical Research Council of SA, The SA Sugar Association (SASA), Faculty of Community and Health Sciences (UWC); Sweden: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Grant from the Swedish State under LUA Agreement, Grant from the Västra Götaland Region (FOUU); Turkey: Metabolic Syndrome Society, AstraZeneca, Turkey, Sanofi, Turkey; United Arab Emirates: Sheikh Hamdan Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Award For Medical Sciences, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai UAE.
Role of Sponsor: The funders and sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
PURE Project Office Staff, National Coordinators, Investigators, and Key Staff: Dr Chow reports having worked as senior research fellow and project officer for the PURE study 2007-2009, wrote the analysis plans and had the primary responsibility for writing this paper. Dr S. Yusuf is the principal investigator of the PURE study and conceived, initiated, and supervised its conduct and data analyses. Dr Teo is the coprincipal investigator of the PURE study. Dr McKee contributed to the interpretation of the data and to drafts of the manuscript. All other authors coordinated the PURE study in their respective countries and provided comments on drafts of the manuscript. Project office staff (Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada): Coordination and Data Management: S. Rangarajan (Project Manager); K.K. Teo, C.K. Chow; S. Islam (Statistician), M. Zhang (Statistician), C. Kabali (Statistician), M. Dehghan (Nutritionist), J. Xiong, A. Mente, J. DeJesus, P. Mackie, M. Madhavan, D. Corsi, L. Farago, J. Michael, I. Kay, S Zafar, D. Williams, R. Solano, N. Solano, M. Farago, J. Rimac, S. Trottier, W. ElSheikh, M. Mustaha, J. Kaszyca, R. Hrnic, S. Yusuf (Principal Investigator). Core Laboratories: M. McQueen, K. Hall, J. Keys (Hamilton), X. Wang (Beijing, China), J. Keneth (Bangalore, India). Argentina: R. Diaz*, A. Orlandini, C. Bahit, B. Linetsky, S. Toscanelli, G. Casaccia, J.M. Maini Cuneo. Bangladesh: O. Rahman*, R. Yusuf, A.K. Azad, K.A. Rabbani, H.M. Cherry, A. Mannan, I. Hassan, A.T. Talukdar, R.B. Tooheen, M.U. Khan. Brazil: A. Avezum*, G.B. Oliveira, C.S. Marcilio, A.C. Mattos. Canada: K. Teo*, S. Yusuf*, J. Dejesus, S. Zafar, D. Williams, J. Rimac, G. Dagenais, P. Poirier, G. Turbide, D. Auger, A. LeBlanc De Bluts, M.C. Proulx, M. Cayer, N. Bonneville, S. Lear, A. Chockalingam, D. Gasevic, S. Gyawali, S. Hage-Moussa, G. Mah, M. MacLeod, I. Vukmirovich, A. Wielgosz, G. Fodor, A. Pipe, S. Papadakis I. Moroz, S. Muthuri. Chile: F. Lanas*, P. Seron, S. Martinez. China: Liu Lisheng*, Li Wei*, Chen Chunming, Wang Xingyu, Zhao Wenhua, Bo Jian, Chang Xiaohong, Chen Tao, Chen Hui, Cheng Xiaoru, Deng Qing, He Xinye, Hu Bo, Jia Xuan, Li Jian, Li Juan, Liu Xu, Ren Bing, Sun Yi, Wang Wei, Wang Yang, Yang Jun, Zhai Yi, Zhang Hongye, Zhao Xiuwen, Zhu Manlu, Lu Fanghong, Wu Jianfang, Li Yindong, Hou Yan, Zhang Liangqing, Guo Baoxia, Liao Xiaoyang, Zhang Shiying, Bian Rongwen, Tian Xiuzhen, Li Dong, Chen Di, Wu Jianguo, Xiao Yize, Liu Tianlu, Zhang Peng, Dong Changlin, Li Ning, Ma Xiaolan,Yang Yuqing, Lei Rensheng, Fu Minfan, He Jing, Liu Yu, Xing Xiaojie, Zhou Qiang. Colombia: P. Lopez-Jaramillo*, R. Garcia, J.F. Arguello, R. Dueñas, S. Silva, L.P. Pradilla, F. Ramirez, D.I. Molina, C. Cure-Cure, M. Perez, E. Hernandez, E. Arcos, S. Fernandez, C. Narvaez, J. Paez, A. Sotomayor, H. Garcia, G. Sanchez, T. David, D. Gómez-Arbeláez, A. Rico. India: M. Vaz*, A.V. Bharathi, S. Swaminathan, P. Mony, K. Shankar A.V. Kurpad, K.G. Jayachitra, N. Kumar, HAL Hospital, V. Mohan, M. Deepa, K. Parthiban, M. Anitha, S. Hemavathy, T. Rahulashankiruthiyayan, D. Anitha, K. Sridevi, R. Gupta, R.B. Panwar, I. Mohan, P. Rastogi, S. Rastogi, R. Bhargava, R. Kumar, J.S. Thakur, B. Patro, R. Mahajan, P. Chaudary, V. Raman Kutty, K. Vijayakumar, K. Ajayan, G. Rajasree, A.R. Renjini, A. Deepu, B. Sandhya, S. Asha, H.S. Soumya. Iran: R. Kelishadi*, A. Bahonar, N. Mohammadifard, H. Heidari. Malaysia: K. Yusoff*, H.M. Nawawi, T.S. Ismail, A.S. Ramli, R. Razali, NAMN Khan, N.M. Nasir, R. Ahmad, T. Winn, F.A. Majid, I. Noorhassim, M.J. Hasni, M.T. Azmi, M.I. Zaleha, K.Y. Hazdi, A.R. Rizam, W. Sazman, A. Azman. Pakistan: R. Iqbal*, M. Shahid, R. Khawaja, K. Kazmi. Poland: W. Zatonski*, R. Andrzejak, A. Szuba, K. Zatonska, R. Ilow, M. Ferus, B. Regulska-Ilow, D. Różańska, M. Wolynie. SouthAfrica: A. Kruger*, H.H. Voster, A.E. Schutte, E. Wentzel-Viljoen, F.C. Eloff, H. de Ridder, H. Moss, J. Potgieter, A.A. Roux, M. Watson, G. de Wet, A. Olckers, J.C. Jerling, M. Pieters, T. Hoekstra, T. Puoane, E. Igumbor, L. Tsolekile, D. Sanders, P. Naidoo, N. Steyn, N. Peer, B. Mayosi, B. Rayner, V. Lambert, N. Levitt, T. Kolbe-Alexander, L. Ntyintyane, G. Hughes, R. Swart, J. Fourie, M. Muzigaba, S. Xapa, N. Gobile, K. Ndayi, B. Jwili, K. Ndibaza, B. Egbujie, T. de Lima, M. Petersen, S. Govender. Sweden: A. Rosengren*, K. Bengtsson Boström, U. Lindblad, P. Langkilde, A. Gustavsson, M. Andreasson, M. Snällman, L. Wirdemann, K. Pettersson, E. Moberg. Turkey: A. Oguz*, AAK Akalin, KBT Calik, N. Imeryuz, A. Temizhan, E. Alphan, E. Gunes, H. Sur, K Karsidag, S. Gulec, Y. Altuntas. United Arab Emirates: A.M. Yusufali*, W. Almahmeed, H. Swidan, E.A. Darwish, A.R.A. Hashemi, N. Al-Khaja, J.M. Muscat-Baron, S.H. Ahmed, T.M. Mamdouh, W.M. Darwish, M.H.S. Abdelmotagali, S.A. Omer Awed, G.A. Movahedi, F. Hussain, H. Al Shaibani, RIM Gharabou, D.F. Youssef, AZS Nawati, ZAR Abu Salah, RFE Abdalla, S.M. Al Shuwaihi, M.A. Al Omairi, O.D. Cadigal, R.S. Alejandrino. Zimbabwe: J. Chifamba*, L. Gwaunza, G. Terera, C. Mahachi, P. Mrambiwa, T. Machiweni, R. Mapanga.