Study concept and design: McWilliams, Landon, Chernew.
Acquisition of data: McWilliams, Landon.
Analysis and interpretation of data: McWilliams, Landon, Chernew.
Drafting of the manuscript: McWilliams, Landon, Chernew.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: McWilliams, Landon, Chernew.
Statistical analysis: McWilliams, Landon, Chernew.
Obtained funding: McWilliams, Landon.
Study supervision: McWilliams, Landon.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Landon reports consultancy with Active Networks, Navigenics, Massachusetts Medical Society, United Biosource, and Research Triangle Institute. Dr Chernew reports board membership on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and the Congressional Budget Office. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from the Beeson Career Development Award Program (National Institute on Aging grant K08 AG038354 and the American Federation for Aging Research), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (Clinical Scientist Development Award 2010053), the National Institute on Aging (grant P01 AG032952), and the Commonwealth Fund (grant 20110391).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources did not play a role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to Dana G. Safran, ScD, BCBS of Massachusetts, for comments on an earlier draft of this article and to Pasha Hamed, MA, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, for statistical programming support. Dr Safran was not compensated for her contributions. Mr Hamed’s contributions were supported by the same funding sources as the authors’ contributions.