Study concept and design: Foa, Bux, Oslin, O’Brien, Riggs, Volpicelli.
Acquisition of data: Foa, Yusko, Bux, Oslin, Imms, Riggs.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Foa, Yusko, McLean, Suvak, Oslin, O’Brien.
Drafting of the manuscript: Foa, Yusko, McLean, Suvak, Bux, Imms.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Foa, Oslin, O’Brien, Riggs, Volpicelli.
Statistical analysis: Suvak.
Obtained funding: Foa, Bux, O’Brien, Riggs.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Foa, Yusko, Bux, O’Brien, Imms, Riggs.
Study supervision: Foa, Yusko, Bux, Oslin, O’Brien, Riggs, Volpicelli.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Foa reported receiving research funding from the Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, and National Institute of Health; and receiving income from published books on posttraumatic stress disorder treatment. Dr Suvak reported receiving travel reimbursement and fees for conducting statistical analyses from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr Bux reported receiving several institutional grants from the National Institutes of Health not related to this study; and receiving travel reimbursement from the National Institutes of Health. Dr Oslin reported receiving research funding from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Institutes of Health. Dr O’Brien reported receiving a grant from the National Institutes of Health; serving as a consultant to Alkermes Inc and Embera; providing expert testimony in a malpractice case in 2011; and receiving royalties for writing a textbook. Dr Riggs reported receiving research funding from the Department of Defense. Dr Volpicelli reported serving as a consultant to Alkermes Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant RO1 AA012428 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (primary investigator: Edna B. Foa, PhD).
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, or any US government agency.
Additional Contributions: We thank the following people who provided prolonged exposure treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and to those who helped supervise these therapists: Elna Yadin, PhD, Elizabeth Hembree, PhD, Sandra Capaldi, PsyD, Tracey Lichner, PhD (Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), Elyssa Kushner, PhD (Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Shawn Cahill, PhD (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee), and Kelly Chrestman, PhD (Center for Deployment Psychology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland). Many thanks to the research assistants who helped conduct the day-to-day data collection activities. Special thanks to Samantha G. Farris, BA (Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas) for her dedication to data cleaning and preparation. We wish to extend our particular appreciation to Paula Schnurr, PhD (Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, Vermont), for her extremely helpful comments and suggestions on a previous version of the manuscript. None of the above-listed contributors received compensation for their work.