Author Contributions: Dr Ladapo had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Ladapo, Rodwin.
Acquisition of data: Ladapo, Rodwin.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ladapo, Ryan, Trasande, Blustein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ladapo, Blustein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ladapo, Rodwin, Ryan, Trasande, Blustein.
Statistical analysis: Ladapo, Rodwin, Ryan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Trasande.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Ryan reported receiving a career development award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; serving as a consultant to Econometica; and receiving grants from the Commonwealth Fund and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. No other disclosures were reported.